Undergraduate and Masters Criminology Dissertations
The Internet Journal of Criminology presents Masters and first class undergraduate dissertations in the field of criminology, which are considered by the Editorial Board to be worthy of publication. The IJC will only publish undergraduate dissertations that receive a first class mark, and it should be noted that these criminology papers are NOT peer reviewed, edited or assessed for their quality. So long as the student was given a first class mark and the paper is criminological in content we will publish it, thereby offering up and coming criminologists an outlet through which to become published.
To download the articles please click on the links below.....
This dissertation aims to assess normalisation of recreational drug use on an English and a Spanish sample, testing the validity of the thesis
created by Parker et al. (2002). The inclusion of two different countries allows a comparative assessment of the five key factors of
normalisation: drug availability and accessibility, drug trying rates, regularity and recency of use, and degrees of social and cultural
accommodation. The figures obtained are compared to other social studies measuring drug use, demonstrating that the rates of recreational
use of drugs amongst the young-adult population remains consistently high. Respectively, 87% and 94% of the English and Spanish respondents
involved in this research have been in drug offer situations, reporting cannabis to be the easiest drug to acquire. 66% and 81% of them have
tried at least one drug, cannabis trying rates standing at 59% and 74% followed by the ‘dance drugs’ ecstasy and cocaine. Even though the
abstainers held a negative opinion towards the topic, an average of 96% of participants selected it as the most acceptable drug, indicating – as
most research suggests – that “it is only with the recreational use of cannabis that the normalisation criteria have been adequately satisfied”
(Parker et al., 2002: 961).
3D Printed Firearms: Can we smell the cordite?
Over this last year there has been a lot of media attention and controversy about a potential new crime wave of
untraceable three dimensional (3D) printed firearms. However, the question remains is this all necessary? This
research through a critical review of the current and potential impacts of 3D printed firearms aims to determine
the level of concern that is required in relation to 3D printed firearms.
The ‘Chav’ as a Subcultural Response to the Ideological Stigmatisation of Working Class Youth in an Ontologically Insecure Postmodernity
The twenty-first century, as an epoch of innovation and advancement, is riddled with perplexities of social existence.
While the juvenile delinquent is by no means a novel consternation, a consumer society of cultural multiplicity and
precarious relations has submerged the public imagination in existential fear of transgressive youth. The ‘chav’ is
visual phenomena of expressively branded identity, of which has come to be figuratively coalesced with the origination
of a criminogenic British underclass. Characteristics of welfare dependency, sexual promiscuity and worklessness are
propagandised as the epitome of a moral corrupt society. Mediated stereotype acts as a deviancy reinforcer, further
ostracising an outcast youth beyond the boundaries of normative reality. A deconstruction of the underclass, as
contextualised in a socio-political continuum of class hatred, is necessary for interpreting of the ‘chav’ identity
as a subcultural acclimatisation to the ontologically insecure self.
An Exploration of News Reporting of Paedophiles Over Time
This research explores whether there are any changes in how the UK’s national newspapers report on the
trials of child sex offenders over a seven year period from 2008 to 2014 using the methodological approach
of content analysis. The purpose of the research is to uncover whether there is evidence that news reporting
informs its readership of changes in the understanding of child sex offenders, reporting more sympathetically
on the growing medical and academic challenges to perceived perceptions of child sex crime offenders who,
notwithstanding the seriousness of their crimes, are, for example, often either victims of child sex crimes
themselves, or are genetically predisposed to their behaviour. There is an increasing school of thought that
there is more of a requirement of medical, psychological treatment and rehabilitation and a little more understanding
by society of underlying causes of such behaviour, rather than total condemnation and vilification. Does our national
press, as a source of information, reflect this change of understanding about child sex offenders in its news coverage?
A critical insight into fraud and corruption, and its facilitators, in global sporting organisations in a Western European and North American context
Criminology as an academic discipline is becoming increasingly aware that crime and deviance within sport is by no means trivial, yet to date there is a paucity
of literature in what has been dubbed as ‘sports criminology’ (Groombridge, 2012). Through the utilisation of secondary sources, this library-based dissertation
seeks to bridge the gap in knowledge, to gain a critical insight into fraud and corruption, and its facilitators, within global sporting organisations, such as
FIFA. Thus, seeking to be a preliminary piece of work allying the disciplines of criminology and sport together.
This dissertation argues that not only does the self-governing and self-regulating nature of global sporting organisations, facilitate fraud and corruption,
but also, that the commercialisation of sport more generally has been a catalyst for the occurrence of fraudulent and corrupt practices. Whilst there are a
number of individual-level criminological theories which aide the explanation of fraud and corruption conducted on an individual basis, it has been found that
the nature and extent of fraud and corruption within GSOs is best explained by Messner and Rosenfeld’s (1994) institutional anomie theory. However, ultimately
this dissertation took a similar stance to that of Hall and Winlow (2015), proposing that it is timely that criminology needs to expand the zemiological study
of harm to become better able at explaining harms in today’s neoliberal era, in order for crime and deviance within sport to not be disregarded or trivialised.
To what extent has recreational drug use become normalised amongst young adults in contemporary society?
The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the extent to which recreational drug has become normalised amongst young adults in contemporary
society. Drug normalisation has been a theory that has been heavily neglected for around a decade, therefore this dissertation is extremely valuable as
it provides a thorough investigation in a contemporary setting. Through the use of online self-completion questionnaires, the research has investigated;
the access and availability of illicit drugs, drug trying rates, levels of recent and regular drug use, levels of social accommodation from abstainers and
‘ex’ triers, as well as levels of cultural accommodation. The research revealed that 70.5% of respondents have tried an illicit substance, whilst it is the
significant minority who have never consumed some form of illicit drug. The research has also importantly revealed that non-users and ex-triers are highly
tolerant of the use of drugs recreationally and many attitudes displayed are remarkably accommodating. With regard to previous research, the current research
revealed that cannabis still remains to be the most normalised drug; however LSD and amphetamines can no longer be seen to hold a footing within the
conceptualisation. The current research has also been revealed that cocaine appears to be gaining a substantial level of momentum and is moving away from
its ‘hard drug’ classification; it could soon be situated within the conceptualisation. Overall, the research found that within the sample, recreational drug
use has become further normalised and has moved significantly away from its traditional association with deviancy. Recreational drug users can no longer be
simply thought of as social ‘outsiders’.
Patriarchy, Culture and Violence Against Women:A Qualitative, Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of Criminal Justice Responses to Honour Based Violence
in the United Kingdom.
This thesis employs qualitative methods to examine the subjective experiences of 9 South Asian females in the United Kingdom, all with varying exposure to
honour based violence and the criminal justice system. Recurrent themes
emerge from their accounts to suggest that abusive acts arise out of a multiplicity
of cultural circumstances influenced by power and gender relations. Interdisciplinary theoretical analysis in the discourses of criminology, criminal justice,
sociology, law, cultural studies, psychology and political science compliment the research, with the interplay between contradictory discourses neo-liberalism
and neo-conservatism demonstrating how the volatile and pensive climates of multiculturalism embedded in contemporary issues of terrorism, sexuality and
patriarchy, fracture social relations in the dichotomy of belonging and identity. The notion of honour is also explored, seen both as a tool to constrain
women's self-determination and independence, and as a catalyst for violence when notions of family and community norms are challenged by women. Case
descriptions from the UK are employed to illuminate how the concept of honour is used in practice, as well as highlighting problems with accountability
and the lack of civil and criminal remedies that fail to provide women with adequate protection whilst covertly legitimating male violence. Recommendations
based on findings include holistic responses in the provision of training for criminal justice bodies, the creation of guidelines and legislation specific
to honour based violence, and the development of specialist voluntary services.
Inside Out, Upside Down: Prison, The Military And The Effects Of Parental Separation On Children
This dissertation explores the impact of parental separation on children’s wellbeing. Specifically, it will investigate the adverse behavioural and
psychological effects of parental separation on children’s wellbeing, the possible explanations for these effects and the trauma it elicits in the lives
of affected children. It does this by comparing children separated from their parents because of imprisonment with children separated because of military
deployment. In doing so, this dissertation aims to ascertain whether parental imprisonment poses a unique threat to children’s wellbeing, distinct from
other forms of separation. It found that parental imprisonment could be understood to pose a unique threat to children’s wellbeing on the basis that
the prison context has an exclusive set of factors which adversely affect children’s wellbeing. These include issues of stigma and visitation
difficulties, although casual inference is difficult to determine given that the effects could be attributed to pre-existing disadvantages in children’s
lives prior to the separation and not the separation itself. It is argued that certain similarities exist between both the prison and military contexts
such as the ambiguous and repetitive nature of the loss which casts doubt on the uniqueness of the prison context in affecting children’s wellbeing. Ultimately,
this dissertation considers that parental imprisonment does pose a unique threat to children’s wellbeing.
“Risked To Death”:
A Study into Practitioner Perception of the Implications of Scotland's Sex Offender Management System on the Rehabilitation Of Registered Sex Offenders
Researchers have recently likened modern society to that of a “risk society”, a society preoccupied with risk prevention. It has been claimed that
principles of justice are being jeopardised by an obsession with risk reduction, with punitive policies having little empirical basis. It is crucial
that measures taken to combat sex offending are sensitive to coherent research into what evidences best practice and are not merely a panic, populist
punitive response. At present, literature assessing the current system of management lacks the expert knowledge and professional experience of practitioners. This
dissertation uses data collected from interviews with seven MAPPA professionals in order to enhance the understanding of the implications of Scotland’s
system of management on the rehabilitation of Registered Sex Offenders. It is hoped that by doing this, a more coherent assessment of the management system
can be made. The themes that are discussed are the importance of a holistic approach, problems with a misinformed public, the counter-productivity of the
Scottish system of management and the assessment of MAPPA.
Political Economy, Race and Justice
The purpose of this dissertation is to critically discuss the evolution of African Americans in the United States. The
4concern is that despite gains during the Civil Rights Movement the black race has continued to experience; exclusion,
exploitation, and discrimination although at present somehow this is ‘hidden’.
African Americans are disproportionately imprisoned in the United States. They account for over 50 per cent of the
prison population but account for only 13 per cent of the general population. This statistic is in no relation related
to an increase in offending rates. This is all in consequence to changes in policy and practice in the last forty years.
These changes in the economy and law and policy in particular have in consequence meant that African Americans are still
being denied full integration and citizenship. This means they are still being blocked politically, economically and
This research discusses the simultaneous transformations and implementations since the 1970s this is inclusive of the
neoliberal project, the ‘war on drugs’ and the ‘prison industrial complex. It becomes apparent that these all interlink
and help to keep political and economic elite interests in increased wealth through profitability, at the expense of the
Scamming Black Widow Killers: Investigating a weirdly unexplored type of romance scam
This research examines one type of ‘Black Widow’ killer as an unexplored area of romance scams. Black Widow killers murder those close to them, usually those
who they have some form of romantic association with, such as a husband or lover, however, they also prey on their own relatives. The type of Black Widow killer
focused upon in this research is those who murder for the purpose of financial gain, through using romance to initiate the process. These killers are referred to
as ‘Scamming Black Widow killers’. The notion that such a killer could be identified as a type of romance scam is due to these killers and those fraudsters
conducting romance scams having the same motivations. Romance scams involve fraudsters romancing their victims to form a trustworthy ‘relationship’, to then
defraud them of their finances.
The crime of murder itself, committed by Black Widow killers, is extremely serious in that it requires attention. There is no way to fully understand the
incidence of Black Widow murders, as it is possible for some to go undetected or possibly ruled as accidental deaths. The other crime of non-lethal romance
scams discussed in this research is also a serious crime, which can result in high quantities of money lost, and great emotional pain for the victims. Although
these two crimes are separate, the link between them has previously been weirdly unexplored. This research aims to fill this knowledge gap, proposing Scamming
Black Widow killers to be understood as one type of romance scam.
Male Rape: The Unseen World of Male Rape
This research explores the phenomenon of male rape and how the police recognise it, together with uncovering male rape myths in a local police force. Whilst male
rape research is expanding, it was found that the police have a lack of knowledge, understanding, awareness, and specialised training of male rape. Therefore, police
officers’ attitudes, ideas, views, perspectives, and beliefs on specific topics pertinent to male rape are discussed. This project also seeks to comprehend gender
expectations and stereotypes of men, so as to comprehend the prevalence of male rape, the negligence of male rape, and the under-reporting/recording of male
rape. Moreover, because male rape is a part of sexual violence, feminist theory is used as a foundation for this project, since feminism seeks gender
equality. Ultimately, this research emphasises the need for the police to adequately manage male rape victims and take male rape seriously, without any
negative attitudes, ideas, views, perspectives, and beliefs.
Male Rape: The ‘Invisible’ Male
Female rape attracts a lot of attention in the social sciences, but male rape is greatly overlooked by feminism, which searches to highlight the gendered nature
of rape. As a result, there is a lack of numerical evidence on male rape, although it is necessary to classify the theoretical development of male rape as a social
issue as it looms across the social research discourse. Therefore, it is important to examine this growth because the current direction of the research on male
rape has worrying ramifications for how male rape is theorised. Male rape in the 21st century is problematic because males are still frightened to report for a
wide range of reasons. Therefore, explanations of underreporting are examined, how male rape is considered in criminology, the police, and how male rape victims
are construed within the law, prison, media, and support organisations. Ultimately, this dissertation stresses the need to account adequately for both female and
male rape victims alike.
From the‘Bootlegger' to the ‘Pirate': A Comparative Analysis of the Illegal Music Industry
The effect of the media and what they can do cannot be ignored as it plays such a crucial part in daily life. This is highlighted by the recent Leveson
inquiry which considered whether the press needed regulating. This thesis considers the effect of one of the fastest growing types of media, social media. In
the UK alone, social network site Twitter registered around ten million users in 2012 (Guardian, 2012). A large percentage of the UK now has access to these
social networking sites. This study explores the changing nature of media representations of the British police and the implications that social media may
have on perceptions of the police. This will be achieved be examining the literature surrounding media representations of policing, followed by a discussion
of five qualitative, primary research interviews with journalism students, which that examine the use of social media, engagement with police related content
and influence of social media on opinions of the police. This thesis covers areas of media effects research that this author believes have not yet been addressed
and so aims to fill a gap in the literature. Significantly, this research hopes to develop knowledge on, and allow the reader to understand the impact of the
changing nature of media representations of the police on how the police are perceived. The findings suggest that social media enables users to be more involved
in the democratic processes of government organisations, but what also happens is that people may be exposed to more damaging footage of the police, take in
smaller amounts of information and still be greatly influenced by mass media organisations, who are the main context setters of news. Public opinion may be
no better informed then before. Representations become more complicated, and so views of the police become more extreme and varied, which in turn may create
more tension over opinions on the police.
‘Policing in Great Britain has always been as much a matter of image as much as of substance'
This dissertation aims to analyse and compare the ever-evolving illegal music industry, both past and present. Specifically, this research will focus
on the bootleg boom which occurred in the late 1960’s, with online piracy of today, which was enabled by the invention of the Internet. The approach
undertaken aims to supply a brief history of both bootlegging and piracy, and to determine the actual financial impact the illegal music industry has
had on official record sales. The study will utilise secondary research, as well as an in-depth interview with an individual involved in the pioneering
of bootleg records in the late 1960’s.
Can The Police Prove Evidence of Non-Consent?
The aim of the research is to explore whether the quality of evidence of non-consent, gathered from female victims of acquaintance rape in an East Midlands
Police force area in 2010/11, is sufficient for a successful prosecution. Whilst the numbers of reported rapes has steadily increased, the conviction rate
does not reflect this. The offence of Rape has the highest attrition rate of all serious crime and the contention is this is often due to insufficient evidence. This
may be due to poor investigative interviewing of victims by the Police, hence the requirement for this research.
This dissertation met the research aim through an extensive study of the relevant literature and the implementation of a multi-method approach, designed to collect
empirical data from practitioners with expertise in the research area. The latter was carried out via semi-structured interviews and an evaluation of interviews
conducted with rape victims. The findings were analysed in an attempt to assess the current quality of evidence of non-consent.
Vulnerabilites and Responses to Terrorist Financing: An Exploration of Informal Value Transfer Systems, Islamic Charities, Businesses And Financiers
Since the events of September 11th 2001 the international community has explored various measures of tackling terrorism, one of these measures and one
which has been explored less is the tackling of terrorism financing. President Bush announced the first stage of the War on Terrorism with an attack against
the terrorist financial infrastructure, but since then there has been relatively little focus on this tactic.
Due to the activities of al-Qaeda being mainly under the radar, this study only offers an exploration and insight into the vulnerabilities and effectiveness
of the measures targeted at terrorist financing. Therefore it was not possible to offer a full conclusion on the findings and the effectiveness of the measures targeted at them. The findings on Informal Value Transfer Systems (IVTS) suggested that the system could be as clean and only as vulnerable to terrorist
financing as the formal banking system for example. However as it has been stressed in this study, as there is no effective measure to confirm what effect
any tactic deployed against al-Qaeda is having it cannot be said for certain. The findings on Islamic charities suggested that this source of terrorist financing
is much more vulnerable to terrorist financing than the other two areas discussed. The reasons found for this were that the humanitarian consequences that
these measures can cause make it difficult for governments and bodies to apply strict measures to this source. The final source discussed was businesses and
financiers and the findings on this area were found to be the most inconclusive, as there were many conflicting opinions from authors present. However the
evidence which highlighted the role financiers had in funding the 9/11 attack underlined the threat and vulnerability this source has in terrorist financing.
Does Secondary Psychopathy Exist? Exploring Conceptualisations of Psychopathy and Evidence for the Existence of a Secondary Variant of Psychopathy
A growing body of theory and related research has proposed the idea that psychopathy may be no longer consist of a homogenous population of individuals who
share common etiological and phenotypic features. Rather, it is now proposed that psychopathy may be further segregated into primary and secondary variants
that score similarly on measures of psychopathy (e.g. Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003)) and yet differ in elements of their
personality, behaviour and the etiological factors implicated in their development. Utilising secondary research in order to conduct a critical review
of the related literature, this study set out with the primary aim to critically evaluate evidence for the existence of a secondary variant of psychopathy. Further
to this, a secondary aim was to investigate historical and contemporary conceptualisations of psychopathy and its operationalisation through its measures.
The Effectiveness of Youth Mentoring in a Criminal Justice Context
The overall aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of youth mentoring as a criminal justice intervention. It not only analyses the effect it
has on offending behaviour, but also assesses the impact it has on other aspects of a young person’s life. In addition, it examines the importance of a
meaningful relationship between a youth and their mentor in achieving a successful mentoring outcome. A comprehensive review of the current literature
in relation to youth mentoring suggests that it can have a number of benefits, including increased school competency, enhanced social skills and
improved family relationships to name a few; however, the findings do not support its use as a criminal justice intervention on such a large scale, as
the impact it has on offending is argued to be modest at best. As youth mentoring is an increasingly popular method of crime reduction and prevention
in the United Kingdom (UK), it is important to examine its effectiveness in greater detail. A case study of a sixteen year-old youth and his male mentor
from a local Youth Offending Team was carried out using two semi-structured interviews. Through a process of thematic analysis, it is suggested that youth
mentoring can have a significant impact on a young person in a number of ways, particularly in the presence of a good quality relationship between mentee
(youth) and mentor.
Moral Panics, The Media and Male And Female Offenders of Child Sexual Abuse
It is argued that the media is the main instigator of moral panics and that their depiction of male and female offenders of CSA differs based on their
predisposed gender roles. An extensive literature review was undertaken in order to explore the differences between how male and female offenders of
CSA are portrayed. It was found that female offenders were reported based on a ‘virgin’ or ‘whore’ paradigm and that they are classed as doubly
deviant. Females who commit CSA go against their predisposed gender roles and carry out their offences under the guise of motherhood. Male offenders, on
the other hand, are deemed evil and the use of the term paedophile is broadly applied giving society a false impression of sex offenders. It is also noted
within this dissertation that the CJS respond differently depending on the sex of the offender. Female offenders appear to be taken less seriously whereas
male offenders are vilified as a gendered group and the media takes it upon themselves to take vigilante action or encourage vigilante action as they perceive
themselves as being the guardians of society. It was found that moral panics about male offenders of CSA are more prevalent than female offenders of CSA and
this could be due to the consensus that CSA offenders are only male and that the few cases involving females are due to male coercion or not believed. This
was found to be not true in the case of people such as Rose West who was sexually deviant before she met Fred West. It is suggested that the media with their
influential ability should educate society rather than focus on playing on the fears of society and that the CJS needs more training with regards to female offenders.
Restorative Injustice: Barriers to Victime Engagement in Restorative Justice
Restorative Justice has been used informally by other names for many years, but it is only recently that it has become a source for widespread debate. With
the current economic crises, finding the most effective way of combatting recidivism and so reducing the cost of crime has become paramount in the eyes of
the police, the public, and the government. Restorative Justice is often posited as a cheaper, more effective alternative to imprisonment, but it has the
shortcoming of relying almost solely on the permission and participation of the victims. This report seeks to discover and analyse possible barriers to
victim engagement in Restorative Justice with a view to making recommendations on how to remove or alleviate these. By creation of a Literature Review, it
was discovered that, although popular media represents a usually negative view of Restorative Justice, the majority of victims and offenders in studies
discussed felt positively about it. The statistics also showed Restorative Justice in a good light when considering recidivism. However, there were no projects
that addressed victims of assault in Derby. To this end, a questionnaire was created and completed by thirty victims of assault selected through Witness Service
in Derby. The answers were then analysed to fully benefit from the information within and the results were presented within coding frames. It was found that
Restorative Justice was not a well-known practise, with less than half of the sample having previous awareness of the scheme. It was also found that there
was a great deal of confusion concerning perceived effectiveness of the scheme, and there were few that answered directly to the questions over choosing an
ambivalent answer. Overall, there was a general view that Restorative Justice can be good for both victims and offenders in certain situations, but can
also be damaging if not applied properly.
The Victim’s Role in the Justice Process
This paper is written to address the role of the victim in the criminal justice process. Secondary data analysis is the method used for the research. The
data include governmental, law, scholarly, and victim’s rights studies. The purpose of this paper is to suggest changes to the victim’s role and expectation
in the criminal justice process. The reader is taken through the historical approaches to victim involvement in the criminal justice process, to contemporary
issues that victims of crime face, the paper goes on to discuss changes that should be made for the justice system to leave victims more satisfied with their
involvement. Multiple approaches pertaining to violent and minor crime are taken into consideration. Finally, this paper addresses challenges to implementing
legal changes to victim’s roles.
The Extent of Student Knowledge on the Current UK Drugs Policy, and Their Perception of Harms In Illegal Drugs
This project will measure university students’ knowledge on the current classifications of drugs and the sentencing penalties resulting from possession of an
illegal drug. In addition the perceptions of how harmful drugs can to be. This will be done through self-completion questionnaires from a sample of 42 students
from the University of East London. One of the main aims of the UK drug policy is to deter the public from consuming illegal drugs. However, previous studies
have shown that young people have the highest level of illegal drug consumption, suggesting that drug policy is not working as effectively as it could be. The
results of this study indicated a lack of knowledge on the current drugs policy and varying views of the harms drugs carry.
‘If you are anti-drugs, you should be pro-reform’ – Nick Clegg (BBC, 2012).
In 2012 a Home Affairs Select Committee recommended a Royal Commission into UK drug policy to investigate whether Portugal’s decriminalisation policy
could be adopted (HASC, 2012). These calls were echoed in 2013 with the All-Party Parliamentary Group Report into Drug Policy Reform (APGRDR, 2013). Both
were carried out by party-politicians and supported by academics, yet these calls were rejected by Prime Minister David Cameron who stated that current
approaches were succeeding (BBC, 2013). Moreover, at the time of writing, Brighton council is considering the use of decriminalised drug-use rooms, attracting
similar criticism (BBC, 2013c). Why is the case? Why is the UK reluctant to adopt such consequentialist approaches to policing drugs when other nations are
seeing successes and endorsements from professionals? What is the cultural context behind this?
This thesis is a literary analysis that presents a cultural comparison of the UK and Portugal to establish cultural explanations as to why the UK is reluctant
in adopting consequentialist drug approaches when compared to other nations. This writer concludes that the UK is an embodiment of Young’s Exclusive Society
and Garland’s Culture of Control and it is this cultural context that creates a reluctance to pursue such a consequentialist strategy as CJS policy is a
reflection of a nation’s culture. The importance of understanding the influences cultural context possess regarding drug policy development is
highlighted. Therefore if there are any desires to change policy, cultural change is recommended for acceptance. Thus, further cultural comparisons
regarding drug policy between different nations are recommended with a focus on the BRIC nations to reflect drugs’ glocal attributes and the changing
nature of this world.
CRUEL AND UNUSUAL
This research’s intent was to explore the issue of sex offending and in particular the use of sex offender registries within United Kingdom and America; looking
at the impact of labelling, from the perspective of the offender and their families. Secondary research was used to gather the relevant studies together from
both countries perspective in a cross cultural exploration using an implicit binary comparison of United Kingdom and America, to discuss the question of
cruel and usual punishments. A considered effort was made to only use research which was taken from the offender’s perspective.
Legislation from both countries was discussed, with the intention of highlighting the key comparisons and differences. Key figures show a decrease in sex
offending while, evidence suggests a continued public unrest; England’s human rights policies are explored, as are the tougher legislations within the United
States. Research indicated United Kingdom has sufficiently less sex offenders per 10,000 people than America.
Moral panics, society’s morality and media influences are researched, these are used to demonstrate that public notification and restriction programs could
be seen to infringe on the human rights of an individual and have a detrimental effect on any rehabilitation.
Life as a Cop - The Impacts of Policing on Police Officers: Is Policing a Lifestyle Choice?
The face of policing is changing. This research examines the impact that the role of a police officer has on those who perform it. Through semi-structured,
qualitative interviews, it explores the various pressures that are placed on officers throughout their role; the impact these have upon them as people;
and the way in which they live their lives. In doing so, it seeks to determine whether policing is a lifestyle choice.
For the first time in over 30 years, police forces in England and Wales are being subjected to significant reforms at the recommendation of Tom Winsor.
Moreover, due to governmental cuts to funding, there is now more demand than ever on the police to be an efficient, effective and resourceful public
service. This climate of transition and change within policing, forms the context within which this research enquiry sits. Whilst these changes have
only just begun to take effect, invariably they have, and will, continue to create additional pressures with which officers must contend. Thus, during
a time when police officers are placed, more than ever, at the forefront of public and political scrutiny, it is important that the pressures engendered
within their contemporary role are fully understood and, crucially, do not go unrecognised. Currently, police performance is quantified, for these
stakeholders, through numerical performance indicators. However, the findings of this research have led the researcher to question how practicable this
really is, and whether measuring performance in this way is unintentionally hindering officers, the police service, the government and, potentially, the
social recovery of society.
Neoliberalism, Social Harm and The Financial Crisis
This research analysis set out to examine and explore the relationship between neoliberalism and social harm theory in the US and
the UK, to see if the effects of neoliberalism can be described as social harms. This exploration included the definition of the
perceived notion of crime and how certain harms are not valued under criminal law. It used previous literature to assess and discover
the impacts neoliberalism (as a form of capitalism) has on society (in terms of its political ideologies). Whilst also developing an
understanding of the argument from critical criminologists who suggest a move to the social harm approach would be beneficial. The
interest in this research was born out of the 2008 financial crisis, its causes and the responses to it. From this analysis it can be seen
that there is a strong link between neoliberalism and the production of social harms. It was concluded that further research is required
to push forward the need for these social harms to be recognised as unlawful.
Sex Trafficking of Women and Children in Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States: The Global Politics of Exploitation
This project examined the phenomenon of human trafficking in the context of sexual exploitation. It focused on women and children, as the
victims, because these groups are the most vulnerable. Furthermore, it presented methods of recruitment, reasons for targeting particular types
of people and the consequences the victims suffer from sex trafficking. The international routes of human trade within Europe and the Commonwealth
of Independent States were also outlined. This included forms of transport and passage, destination countries and origin points. Human trafficking
was defined and its occurrence and existence historically was critically evaluated. Furthermore, development of international legislations and
awareness raised within the countries where the problem exists was presented. Moreover, this project illustrated different perceptions of trafficking
which are linked to creation of diverse laws and approaches by various states to tackle this crime.
Unravelling their Misrepresentations and Understanding the Cause: An exploratory study into domestic violence concerning gay men
The concept of domestic violence has predominantly been understood within a heterosexual context where women are situated as the victims of both her
gender and by her partner. Very little research has been conducted to explore domestic violence in non-heterosexual relationships. Many misconceptions
have surrounded the occurrence of abusive behaviours within the relationships of gay men, which have most importantly contributed to its concealment,
rejection and fundamentally its very existence as a problematic issue that society faces within the contemporary world. Therefore, this study pursues to
unravel and enlighten this topic by exploring how such violent behaviour is caused, constituted, constructed and understood in late modernity by those
gay men who have been subjected to it. The research adopts a qualitative approach using semi structured interviews to obtain ‘thick descriptions’ of
how men have experienced domestic violence within intimate same sex relationships. The data gathered has been thematically analysed using grounded
theory to explore what appear to be the central causes, processes and societal perspectives of the topic. The notion of crystallisation has also been
used to drive its exploratory aim in providing a deepened understanding of domestic violence from various viewpoints. The findings indicate that
domestic violence within the intimate relationships of gay men lack recognition, are misconceived, gay men struggle to self realise their victimized
position and that current service provisions are inconsistent as well as ineffective at confronting the problem due to both heterosexist and sexist
stereotypes. Ultimately, the study demonstrates that through exploring the lives of gay men, domestic violence is potentially an occurring feature
within the discourse of a gay mans life, and that exploration must be continued if a thorough understanding of such a concealed topic is to be revealed.
I shop therefore I am; does the society of consumption drive criminal activity in late liquid modernity?
This small scale research project utilises secondary analysis of 6 texts to lay the foundations into the study of criminal motivation in an
increasingly individualised society. In order to achieve this it traces the history of criminology as a science and consumption as a socially
constructed phenomenon back to their inceptions.
It explores how consumption has become the grand narrative in contemporary society and examines the political and economic context in which
this has flourished. It traces criminological thought back to its founders and assess the impact on which it has on modern criminological
thought, whilst noting the flaws in its foundations.
It will argue and demonstrate how desire has been manipulated in the core of our biological being and harnessed into consumerism allowing
the Kenyan capitalist economic system to grow. It will show the relationship this holds to modern criminal activity.
This paper will conclude that access to the consumption market is the Holy Grail for modern citizens and criminal activity is a result of
exclusion to this market and of a revolutionizing process of repression from our basic animalistic drives. It will also show that criminology
as an academic discipline and practical science needs to move away from its preoccupation with controlling crime risks and encourage more
original thought into discovering individual criminal motivations, rather than nostalgically comparing out dated and flawed theories.
The Criminal 'Edgework' Alternative Hypothesis: Is the Advancement of Entertainment and Communications Media Reducing Crime?
In an unexpected turn, the Western world is experiencing a steady reduction in crime, which began in the mid – 1990’s. In an attempt to make
sense of this 15 year crime drop, Criminologists have been proposing many different explanations, all of which suffer from a lack of evidence
to provide validity and reliability.
The idea is that this 15 year crime drop is partly due to the unintended consequences of some form of relatively new human activity or invention. The
proposition put forward within this dissertation is whether the advancement in entertainment and communications media has played a part in this
crime recession. The argument is that this advancement in media technology has provided a substitute and a distraction from committing real life
crime. The new emerging trend in Criminology has been to cite Routine Activities Theory as an explanation for the crime drop, and given that the
advancement in entertainment and communications media has been an obvious change in society, the theory has been incorporated into this study. The
notion of ‘edgework’ is also a focus, as it is an original and interesting concept that humans craving for the exhilaration of risk can cause
crime, and that modern day media technologies may provide an alterative avenue to feed this craving. We may call this hypothesis: The ‘Edgework’
Ultimately, however, it is clear that the study suffers from the same lack of evidence and support that other explanations suffer, and that
further research is needed in order to validate the research. At present, the research is very much down to individual opinion.
Does Early Aggression Predict Whether A Child Will Go On To Be Antisocial?
The following socio-criminological study seeks to discover how modern society perceives early childhood aggression as a predictor of future antisocial
behaviour. This report investigates links of causal factors of aggression and antisocial criminality, through the collection of published
literature, public surveys and professional interview analysis.
Theorists have linked antisocial personality traits to violent criminality since the 1930’s (Moeller 2001, p.2000).The current interest however
lies with the causes of antisocial behaviour- much established research being dedicated to the causal factors of violent offending. Early
aggression is on the other hand sparsely investigated within published research; however authors that have made the link and covered this topic
show that it is an important area to consider further research into, to satisfy the ultimate aim of adequate crime prevention. The goal of this
report is to uncover what modern society’s views are on early childhood aggression as a predictor of future antisocial behaviour. This report
investigates links of causal factors of aggression and antisocial criminality through the collection and critique of published literature, public
surveys and professional interview analysis. Within this paper you will find a literature review, a research proposal and a final report- consisting
of analyses of the data collected.
The EU Plan of Action on Combating Terrorism: An Ambiguous and Redundant Tool of Governance
‘The most powerful military in the world cannot invade, kill or capture a network or destroy every loose weapon on the planet. The best
response to this network of terror is to build a network of our own -- a network of like-minded countries and organizations that pools
resources, information, ideas, and power. Taking on the radical fundamentalists alone isn’t necessary, it isn’t smart, and it won’t succeed’ (Biden, 2006 cited in Crenshaw, 2007)
This report is a conservative, unprecedented attempt to evaluate and address the EU Action Plan for Combating Terrorism and wider EU
counter-terrorism policy initiatives through a multidisciplinary lens. An ambiguity-conflict nexus has been distilled from a systematic
literature review of differing perspectives that equate to policy entrepreneurs evoking ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors within policy formation
and implementation. Furthering this, an empirical content analysis of the Action Plan and related EU counter-terrorism documents and their
evolution since September 11th 2001 highlight the overriding ambiguity-conflict nexus within EU counter-terrorism initiatives. Lastly, this
report concludes that the ambiguity and conflict within the Action Plan that arose from policy entrepreneurialism and the ‘push’ and ‘pull’
perspectives, contradicted the central requirement of a managerialist, hierarchical governance that the Action Plan hoped to achieve
(Yonah, 2002; 2006; Council of the European Union, 2004a; 2004b).
A Case Study into the Introduction of the Federal Reserve Act 1913 and its Legitimisation of Crime
The purpose of this study is to distinguish the useful and harmful aspects of Fractional Reserve Act 1913 is. This study concludes by stating that
the act is destructive in nature and needs to be readdressed. This study analyses the Act, questioning its moral legitimacy and practicality. It analyses how the Act was created, who published it, why it was created
and how useful it is for society. As a result of this research, the harms this Act has created are exposed. An investigation into the act’s history is
also conducted raising questions over the legitimacy of the Acts original creation. The authors and publishers of the Act are criticised for manipulating
policy in order to achieve private agendas.
The Significance of Regulating Prostitution
This dissertation will focus on the significance of regulating prostitution. The UK Government currently regulates prostitution because the conduct
attracts many problems such as drug use, violence, public nuisance, organised crimes, human trafficking, child prostitution, and exploitation.
However, these problems are still present in the UK. Thus, there have been suggestions that perhaps the UK should take a different approach to
prostitution to tackle these problems more effectively. This dissertation will aim to formulate a framework for the UK Government that will best
tackle these drastic problems. This dissertation will present an evaluation of prostitution and prostitution laws in history. This dissertation
will specify whether prostitution should be accepted as a trade like any other lawful trades or whether the UK should view prostitution as
oppression, slavery, and coercion. Finally, there will be an investigation into the reform proposals to demonstrate the significance of regulating
prostitution and whether any changes to the current UK laws and policies on prostitution could be made in order to pragmatically tackle the
underlying problems of prostitution.
An examination of the ‘Breaking the Cycle’ Green Paper to determine whether the proposed increase in the use of restorative
justice is more likely to reduce the recidivism rates of young offenders than the current criminal justice system
This research paper considers the proposals put forward by the Government in the ‘Breaking the Cycle: Effective Punishment, Rehabilitation and
Sentencing of Offenders’ (Ministry of Justice, 2010) Green Paper against theories of desistance from crime. This is to determine whether the
proposed increase in the use of restorative justice could decrease recidivism rates of young offenders, or whether the current criminal justice
system has a greater ability to achieve this. The major difference between the current criminal justice system and restorative justice is that, whilst
the current criminal justice system focuses predominantly on punishing the offender, restorative justice concentrates on addressing the underlying
reasons for the behaviour and the perspective of the victim. This difference is focussed on throughout the analysis.
To What Extent Has Facebook Become a Conduit for Criminal Activity?
The wide availability of the internet has brought massive changes in the ways by which communication can be achieved and in many instances
have replaced traditional methods of correspondence. Increasingly popular is the use of social network sites which are one of the many ways
by which computer mediated communication can be achieved. The massive growth of this sort of interaction has consequently attracted a large
amount of media attention particularly following incidents of criminal activity that came to light. The aim of this dissertation is to explore
the extent and nature of criminal activity of most popular social networking site, Facebook, and to determine whether the risks and warnings
highlighted in the news and other media regarding the use of social network sites are justified.
Media Representations of Male and Female ‘Co-Offending’: How female offenders are portrayed in comparison to their male counterparts
Through the method of Critical Discourse Analysis this dissertation examined how female co-offenders are portrayed in comparison to their male
counterparts within different forms of media. Existing literature on gender assumptions and the notions of masculinity and femininity and how
they are reiterated in relation to the offender within the media sphere, were vital in not only providing the foundations for this dissertation but
also the focus for the analysis. Concentrating on two different cases of male and female co-offending; Vanessa George and Colin Blanchard and Maxine
Carr and Ian Huntley, a review of the literature relating to each of the partnerships was initially undertaken before critically analysing the linguistic
features of a selection of headlines and two documentaries relating to each of the cases. Informed by the literature, due to the preconceptions
surrounding femininity it was predicted that within both forms of media the female offender in each case would receive the majority of the negative
attention and due to their gender would be demonised far more than the male. Whilst the analyses of both sets of headlines revealed this to be
true, interestingly the documentary relating to Maxine Carr appeared to take on a far more balanced stance.
A Critical Analysis of the Justifications of Imprisonment as Punishment and the Culture of Punitiveness in Comparison to the Realities of
Prison Life within England and Wales
This project will aim to identify why imprisonment is considered to be the primary and most preferable form of punishment within England and
Wales. To do this, historical and traditional notions of the penal system will be considered in depth before it is ascertained if such values
are outdated, unjustifiable or ineffective in modern society. The penal system will be largely deconstructed in an attempt to remove normative and
familiar assumptions and rhetoric that may taint objectivity of judgements. Essentially, this means that the penal system will be stripped of
societal connotations (in so far as is possible given the arguable subjectivity of all human debate), in an attempt to reach a
non-prejudiced, non-perverted conclusion about the justifiability of imprisonment as punishment, and the subsequent consequences that has for offenders.
How Punitive are the British Public?: An Evaluation of Kingston University Student’s Opinion
This dissertation researches the ‘punitive’ nature of Kingston University student’s opinions towards the sentencing of offenders. Using
Hough and Roberts’ (1999) study; ‘Sentencing Trends in Britain: Public Knowledge and Public Opinion’ as inspiration, the knowledge of
two cohorts of students on the Criminal Justice System (CJS) and its practices, is tested to determine the origins and reliability of
the sources they use to form their opinions. John Pratt’s notion of ‘penal populism’ (2007) will be explained in relation to its influence
on the two groups of students. According to the findings of Hough and Roberts (1999) it is considered that the ‘not informed’ students
would express more punitive attitudes due to their ‘lack of knowledge’ of the CJS and the populist punitive nature of the mass media
they are exposed to (Pratt; 2007). In order to contextualise penal populism, its origins will be investigated through a brief history
of social, political and economic conditions which illustrates the rise and effects of neo-liberalism and the subsequent development
of ‘populist punitive’ (Bottoms, 1995 cited in Pratt; 2007; 2) attitudes.
Self-Inflicted Deaths in Prison: An Exploration of INQUEST’s Challenges to State Power
In a modern day society dominated by a culture of crime and punishment there has been an increased use of prisons which has resulted
in the prison population in England and Wales reaching an all time high. This persistent use of prisons has resulted in an increasingly
vulnerable population being in the care of the state. Statistics demonstrate that self-inflicted deaths in prisons is a persistent
problem which raises serious questions regarding the state’s ability to adequately care for prisoners wellbeing. This is where the
charity INQUEST has been instrumental in supporting and campaigning for the rights of these prisoners and their families. This
dissertation examined the work of INQUEST including their main achievements and problems they face as a counter hegemonic organisation. To
discover this information, a vast amount of data was gathered from various staff members at INQUEST, historically right through to the
present day. The dissertation was able to develop a profound understanding of how a counter hegemonic organisation like INQUEST can
successfully challenge the state’s dominant truths surrounding the topic of self-inflicted deaths in prison and develop alternative
truths as a result of their dedicated and tireless work.
The Police Uniform: Power, authority and culture
The highly recognisable and iconic nature of the police uniform is arguably the most powerful tool of the police trade. The power and
authority it bestows on its’ wearers can only serve to have some ‘contaminating’ effect on officers. This study uses qualitative
interview data obtained from nine police officers accessed via a Police Neighbourhood Team over a two week period in December 2011. The
resulting data was used in an attempt to explore the links between power, authority and the wearing of the police uniform and to discuss
the social impact their occupation has on their lives outside the force.
Contemporary Controversies Surrounding Capital Punishment: How does the deterrence theory, victim participation and human rights impact upon current debate?
This dissertation examines three issues of capital punishment that are central to current debate. The areas that are of concern
include: the efficacy of the deterrent effect, the role and impact for victims in capital cases and human rights influences.
In the evaluation of the deterrence effect, the retrospective data revealed that murders and sanctions are independent phenomena. A
comparison of abolitionist and retentionist states in the United States of America informed us that there is no apparent correlation
between imposing the death penalty and a reduction in the average homicide rate. There are various other social and demographic factors
that may have more impact upon crime.
It is argued that the four main dimensions of punishment that the deterrence theory relies upon – severity, certainty, celerity, and
publicity – are not exercised sufficiently for the death penalty to act as an effective to deterrent to murder in the United States
Women in Prison: A Forgotten Population?
This dissertation examines the gendered experiences of women in prison. Women comprise just 5% of the total UK prison population
therefore it is argued that the specific needs of imprisoned women are being overlooked in the development of policy. As a result, there
is a view that women are being disadvantaged in terms of the delivery of services within the prison regime including access to
appropriate prison rehabilitation programmes and healthcare provision.
The literature review identifies the differences in the way men and women experience prison through examples of discrimination. It
also highlights the key differences between male and female prisoners including offence type, life experiences and coping mechanisms
therefore recognising them as a unique group in need of specialised treatment. However, an investigation into prison rehabilitation
programmes and the specific issues facing women in custody such as gynaecological health, pregnancy and childcare, revealed a distinct
lack of gender-specifity in available services.
It concludes that the small numbers of female prisoners have been subsumed into the majority male population and as a consequence, their
needs are failing to be met during custody. This reduces the overall effectiveness of imprisonment as a punitive sanction for women
offenders, suggesting that perhaps an entirely new approach is needed.
Crime Reducing Entertainment: The Contribution of Media Entertainment and Communication Technologies to the UK’s Victimisation Drop
The crime drop of the western industrialised world has baffled criminologists of late, defying all predictions. Despite numerous attempts
to explain it, no consensus has arisen as to the cause. Therefore, incorporating numerous hypotheses may be the way forward in order to
formulate a more comprehensive understanding of the reasons for the decline in crime. The hypothesis presented by this dissertation aims
to contribute to that, examining whether improvements to and widespread availability of media entertainment and communication devices
have caused the crime drop, specifically in the UK.
When comparing statistics from the British Crime Survey regarding victimisation in England and Wales with independent research into
ownership and use of leisure and communication technologies, strong visible relationships were found. Routine Activity Theory is used
to examine the possible effect that ownership and usage trends of these technologies has on crime victimisation. Since Routine Activity
Theory could not explicate the reasons for these potential effects, the dissertation speculates various possible explanations for the
effect. It is found that the hypothesis is plausible and can be applied to many victimisation crimes, though it is only a partial
explanation and must work in conjunction with other hypotheses in order to mutually improve their effectiveness in explaining and
continuing the crime drop.
Neat, Plausible, and Wrong: Examining the Limitations of Typologies in the Study and Investigation of Serial Murder
This thesis questions the accepted use of typologies in an official capacity. To examine if typologies are of practical use in the
study of serial homicide, potential implications of their use are critically discussed in five contexts, those of prevention,
investigation, profiling, utilisation in court, and with respect to societal contentment. It is concluded that due to the inherent
ambiguity of typological thinking and the inability of categorisation to characterise human behaviours, the use of such methods does
more to impede understanding than it does to improve it. Rather, such pursuits are borne out of a very human desire to understand, and
hence control the uncontrollable.
What Evidence Is There For A Link Between Mental Impairment And An Increased Risk Of False Confessions?
There has been much research in recent years into the causes of the well-known phenomenon that mentally impaired people tend to be
over-represented as defendants in the criminal justice process. Less research, however, has been undertaken into why such defendants
and suspects appear to be at a higher risk of making false confessions. This may be because it appears that there is a simple answer
to this question: such suspects are mentally impaired and vulnerable to the pressures of the criminal justice system, particularly
those involved in being interviewed by the police. This is certainly one valid reason but it is by no means the only reason. Research
suggests several causal factors are involved. This paper examines some of these causal factors and in doing so reveals the incremental
nature of knowledge construction which various researchers have taken in their studies. Dispositional factors and situational factors
are both instrumental in causing false confessions. The paper concludes that there is no one major factor that leads mentally impaired
suspects to make false confessions more than suspects who are not mentally impaired but rather it is a combination of factors.
Do the Consequences of Incarceration Problematise the Justification for Women’s Incarceration?
The aim of this study is to critically analyse whether imprisonment for women is a justifiable form of punishment, or whether alternative approaches
are more appropriate. To gain a clear understanding of the question at hand, this essay is based on a theoretical stand point using sources from
official research, feminist views and other critical thinkers, case studies, documentaries as well as charities/agencies and organisations.
The Arab Spring: The Rise Of Human Security And The Fall Of Dictatorship
This work was conducted to determine the impact of human security concerns within security policies of, the dictatorships of Tunisia, Egypt and
Libya upon the Arab Spring and the fall of the regimes in the region of Northern Africa in 2011-12. Academic literature tells us that the concept
of security is changing from a state focussed realist concept in the colonial period to a human focused paradigm in the post-colonial period;
and, although it discusses the threats posed to the moral values of an abstract ‘international community’ through human security issues such as
poverty or human rights abuses, it does little to discuss the importance of the human security on stability of state institutions. Discussion of
this change aids an exploration of realist security policies adopted by Tunisian, Egyptian and Libyan authorities during the 20th century post-colonial
state-building period. What emerges from this is a discussion of how an ignorance of human security within continually realist security policies
eventually led to the downfall of the dictatorial regimes when the legitimacy of those regimes was challenged by a changing international political
and economic situation. This work shows that an analysis of media coverage, political statements, academic and NGO reports reveals negative
citizen-state relationship where the regimes’ frequent human rights abuses damaged the human security of the general population, leading to the
citizens rebelling and ultimately overthrowing the regimes. The work therefore concludes that a state’s recognition of human security is of paramount
importance in ensuring its own legitimacy and state security.
The Coping Strategies, Adjustment and Well Being of Male Inmates in the Prison Environment
The research area of imprisonment and its effects on inmates has had a long and complex history over the past decades, with researchers
having varying opinions. Early researchers suggested that imprisonment had negative psychological and physical effects on its inmates, leading
to psychological deterioration. More recent research, on the other hand, has suggested that imprisonment is not as detrimental as first thought. This
review aims to provide an overview of the coping strategies, adjustment and well being of male inmates in the prison environment. Additionally, a
systematic review methodology is adopted to examine the relationships between coping strategies, adjustment and well being of male inmates. The
objectives of this review were, firstly, to determine if coping strategies affect the adaptation, adjustment and well being of inmates and, secondly, to
determine if institutional changes can improve inmate adjustment and coping. The results were mixed, but demonstrate that there is a complex
relationship between the coping strategies, adjustment and well being of male inmates and that institutional opportunities and changes can be
beneficial. The review concludes that there is a link between coping strategies, adjustment and well being of male inmates and that therapeutic
communities, such as those at HMP Grendon, would be useful in conventional prisons to help inmates adjust and reform.
The Criminal and the Terrorist: A Comparative Criminological Analysis of Pathways into Crime
This dissertation examines both serial killers and terrorists in the hope that a more comprehensive understanding and look into their behaviour,
can help counter their deviance. As recent tragedies such as 9/11 and 7/7 demonstrate the horrific damage terrorist organisations can cause, and
highlights the need to understand their behaviour. Using library based, documentary review as a basis for critical research, this work attempts
to investigate and analyse both serial killers’ and terrorists’ pathways into crime. In demonstrating the similarities and differences between the
two, this dissertation aims to decipher if a terrorist could in fact be far more analogous to a serial killer than what is often believed.
"Retribution Is No Solution”: Is Community Justice a Viable Alternative?
In a period spanning the past 20 years, there has been a “detrimental paradigm shift from ‘penal welfarism’ to ‘penal populism’, the result of
which justifies an increase in the use of incarceration” (Bruce, 2010). This dissertation offers an in-depth analysis of Community Justice
and the determining factors that entitle it as a viable alternative to the core problems (recidivism, public opinion / risk and economics trepidations)
that blight our prison service to date. The findings of which unearth an ambidextrous dichotomy. Exploring ‘the North Liverpool Community Justice Centre’
and cross continental schemes, justice reinvestment coupled with community justice demonstrate a potential solution not without obstacles
Students’ Perceptions of Homicide
The piece of work will be looking to address the gap in research around perceptions of homicide particularly with regards peoples’ perception of
the dynamics of homicide such as where it occurs and the circumstances around the offence. The research will also look at where people get their
information on crime from and consider if this has an effect on a person’s perception. Previous research suggests that peoples view of crime is not
in line with official statistics and that people think crime is on the increase when official figure suggest that crime rates and in particular
homicide rates are decreasing (Mattinson and Mirrlees-Black, 2000; McDonald, 1995; Mitchell and Roberts,2012). Research also suggests there is a
difference between men and women’s perceptions of crime (Pfeiffer et al, 2005), and this piece of research aims to try and replicate those findings
in respect to perceptions of homicide.
Imitation and Incitement: An Analysis of Media-Driven Behaviour and Criminality
In recent years there has been an increase in the consumption of media, which has led to concerns about whether it is criminogenic. This
research aims to evaluate the ways in which the media can be considered criminogenic via two outcomes – imitation of acts and incitement to
crime. In order to assess the influence of media on imitation and incitement, a secondary methodological approach has been utilised; a
literature review was used to compile evidence from a number of resources – including books and journals accessed through Nottingham Trent University.
In addition, this research makes use of newspaper articles to gather anecdotal evidence for the purpose of analysing imitative behaviour of
fictional media. This evidence provides details about specific cases of criminality, which is analysed in conjunction with the media individuals
are purported to have imitated to evaluate the extent to which media is relevant in the cases discussed.
Bentham Versus Kroppotkin: A view on the use of prison as a punishment for criminal behaviour.
The prison is used as a major form of punishment and is currently the ultimate penalty given to criminals who break the law in contemporary
society. However, despite its widespread use, the effectiveness of the prison has always been a widely debated controversial issue. Utilitarian
Jeremy Bentham and anarchist Peter Kropotkin have presented opposing views on the use of the prison as a form of punishment. This dissertation
will outline these two diverse perspectives. After a brief historical discussion of the emergence of the prison, a discussion of Bentham’s and
Kropotkin’s differing views of human nature will demonstrate what they perceive as an ideal society. This forms the basis of their conflicting
solutions to reduce crime, in an attempt to answer whether the prison service is an effective form of punishment for criminal behaviour. After
close examination of Bentham’s utilitarian theory, it is evident that he desired the reformation of the prison. On the other hand, Kropotkin
demanded absolute abolition of the prison and all forms of authority within society, in order to allow for cooperation and mutual aid. However, despite
their differences it is evident that both Bentham and Kropotkin would disagree with how the prison operates today.
How is ‘Honour’ Based Violence Managed In England and Wales?
The purpose of this study is to determine how ‘honour’-based violence is managed in terms of legislation and policy within the UK.
Due to a substantial rise in immigration into the UK over the last decade and the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and 7/7, the UK moved away from
multiculturalism and instead adopted a push towards civic integration. As a result greater focus has been placed upon minority ethnic
within England and Wales. Furthermore, since the rise of second wave feminism and the human rights agenda, violence against women within the UK
has been increasingly recognised as a social problem. Thus ‘Honour’-based violence, a phenomenon commonly associated with minority ethnic communities,
is today increasingly found within both the media and political spotlight within the UK. Through an extensive study of the relevant literature in this
area, this dissertation focuses on the way in which ‘honour’-based violence is managed within England and Wales; particularly within both legislation
High Plains Drifters: Intellectual Property, Freedom Of Speech And Big Business – The Battle For Control Of The World Wide Web.
This is a discussion and definition of Intellectual Property Rights, Intangibility, File Sharing, Freedom of Information, Drift Theory and the Social
Construction of the Cyber Criminal. In this work I intend to outline measures which have been taken to curb Intellectual Property Crime by the media
industry and consider how such measures have been effective in designing out crime. Also an examination of the threat allegedly posed by file sharing
to the media industry and if that threat is as great as the bodies and statistics claim? There is an exploration of Foucaldian notions of power and how
they are stratified across the internet rather than being centred within one particular body or institution.
Is Violence Inherent in Upper Level Drug Markets? An Investigation
The illicit drug trade is the largest transnational form of organised crime in the world and dates back well before
any regulations were introduced to monitor or control such substances, or indeed, to respond to the problems it subsequently
created. The detrimental impacts of this sustained problem, either with supply or demand, have become embedded in many nations
which has allowed upper-level drug traffickers to increase their networks and control, often using violence as a weapon. Despite
the large profits generated from the drug trade, it is argued that the suffering caused by the high crime levels and costs to the
economy is greater than that of the drugs themselves.
Youth Gangs in the UK: Myth or Reality?
The emergence of youth gangs in the UK in recent years has resulted in heightened media attention of the group, with sensationalised headlines
appearing in newspapers relating to violent gang crimes which have led to the deaths of many young people. This has resulted in the fear of
groups of young people within communities, as well as a multitude of government responses.
The aim of this dissertation was to identify the myths and realities surrounding the emergence of youth gangs in the UK in order to determine
whether the media is fuelling a moral panic which in turn has led to inappropriate responses by the government. A literary based approach was
utilised for this research in order to ascertain whether it is appropriate to apply the wide range of US literature to the UK situation. The
research focuses on the varying definitions of youth gangs, followed by an analysis of both US and UK subcultural explanations of the emergence of
gangs and finally a look at how media moral panics influence government initiatives.
The research concludes that youth gangs do exist in the UK, however, due to gaps in research and a lack of reliable empirical evidence, along with the
influence of the media’s involvement; it is found that government responses are failing to address the needs of youths involved in gangs. Recommendations
are also made, suggesting further areas for research as well as improvements which could be made to government policy and initiatives.
Broccoli or Broken Windows? The relationship between anti social behaviour and a nutrient deficient diet
The differential extent of research into nutrition and malnutrition and the impact this has on externalising behaviours is vast. It
is generally accepted that nutrition and related factors such as food additives, hypoglycaemia and cholesterol plays an important role
as a contributor of children and adults externalising behaviour, such as aggression or anti social behaviour, and as such much research
has been carried out into the prevalence of this. However, little is known about the role malnutrition plays in such externalising behaviours
(Raine, Lui, Venables, & Mednick, 2004). Furthermore identifying the antecedents of anti social behaviour has also become prevalent in society
today (Rutter, 1997). Therefore, the following paper will explore the relationship between malnutrition and anti social behaviour.
Situational Crime Prevention: Modern Society’s ‘Trojan Horse?’
According to some commentators, Britain is a place of heightened public insecurity and anxiety. ‘Fear of crime’ (FOC) is a
routine feature of many people’s lives. It can be argued that in the UK successive
governments since the 1970s have utilised this fear, which in turn has provided the political legitimation for the
increased use of situational crime prevention security measures. Paradoxically, visible signs of security
hardware may make some people more fearful, sensing that high security must indicate high risk. This dissertation discusses whether
situational crime prevention is modern society's 'trojan horse'.
‘The Supervision of Sex Offenders in the Community – at what cost?’
The intention of this dissertation was to examine the effectiveness of current practises in place by the criminal justice system to supervising sex
offenders in the community. While treatment techniques within a custodial setting have been investigated in previous research, there has been a
deficiency in research once sex offenders are released. It considered legislation which has introduced such measures to monitor sex offenders
upon their release from custody and analyses the methods and accuracy of risk assessments before reverting back to a debate which highlights the
difficulties in balancing the human rights of the sex offender against the rights protecting the public.
'Child Criminals’ in the Media: an Analysis of Media Constructions of ‘child criminals’ and a Critical Analysis of the Consequences
The intention of this dissertation is to highlight the socially constructed nature of ‘childhood’ through the production and reproduction of knowledge from
discourse. The author endeavours to expose the unequal power relations and discursive manoeuvres that are utilized in media discourse(s) that
sustain dominant notions that children and young people who transgress the law are ‘evil’ and/or 'adult like'.
“Bye-Bye Fascists”: A Critical Analysis of the English Defence League
This paper is aimed at addressing public opinion towards the Right-Wing group, the English Defence League (EDL). Having received the
label of extremists by the media, this paper seeks to examine such claims that the English Defence League is an extremist organisation. What
we hope to achieve is a more detailed understanding of the accusations being made against the EDL, as well as identifying who the EDL are and
what they stand for.
The Person is Political
The central objective of this dissertation is to develop an understanding regarding the socio-economic issue of homelessness. This
dissertation attempts to review and develop understanding regarding the ethos and social improvement practices of the Recycling
Lives organisation, evaluating the multi-dimensional company’s social value in terms of socio-economic rejuvenation and individual
rehabilitation. Other charities and support measures are reviewed alongside government statistics including an acknowledgment of
factors which may have added to the progression of an individual’s disadvantaged state, whilst reviewing the benefits and implications
of institutionalised intervention.
The Wrongful Conviction of Arthur Andersen LLC
The demise of the legal person Arthur Andersen LLC models the many miscarriages of justice, wrongful convictions and subsequent
exonerations of real persons. The case shines a bright light into corners of the criminal justice system often ignored both by
the mass media as well as by many criminal justice professionals. This dissertation provides a cross-section of the case.
An evaluation of the Offender Assessment System (OASys) as an assessment tool for the National Probation Service
The intention of this research was to evaluate the Offender Assessment System (OASys) and to consider its role within the
probation service. Primary research was conducted using the semi-structured interview in order to gain information on several a
reas of interest in relation to OASys. This included the length of time it takes to complete the assessment, any technical
difficulties that occur, gender specific questions, the usefulness of OASys, the results and the relevancy of the information
required. A snowball sample was used in order to gather the participants, which consisted of seven probation employees.
Is CCTV effective in reducing Anti-social Behaviour?
It seems that currently there is very little literature or research evaluating the effectiveness of CCTV in reducing antisocial
behaviour. As antisocial behaviour can be an antecedent to more serious crime it is important to know which initiatives are effective
in reducing the likelihood of it occurring. CCTV is a situational crime prevention method, a way to design out crime (Newburn, T., 2007).
Why Has Prison Emerged as a Prominent Form of Punishment for Most Crime and What Are its Functions in Relation to Wider Society?
The purpose of this dissertation is to ascertain why prison has emerged as a prominent form of punishment for most crime and to
critically discuss the function of modern day prisons in relation to wider society.
Do False Allegations of Rape Made by Women Affect the Workings of the Criminal Justice System?
This dissertation explores false and malicious allegations of rape made by women against men and the effect this has on the workings
of the criminal justice system. Further objectives include examining the reasons why false claims are made, to what extent they contribute
to the low conviction rate in rape cases which is currently only 6% (Home Office, 2010) and examining the role that alcohol and drugs may play
in making a false allegation. These issues were investigated through both library based and primary research that took the form of semi-structured
interviews with a convenience sample including a police officer specialising in the field of rape, a prosecuting barrister for the Crown Prosecution
Service and someone who has recently been accused of rape.
Situational Crime Prevention and Crime Displacement: Myth and Miracles?
The criminologically orthodox view of crime displacement is that displacement is not inevitable; is often less than anticipated, and
that Situational Crime Prevention Initiatives may even lead to a ‘diffusion of benefits’. Advocates of this viewpoint cite empirical
literature that purports to show little evidence of displacement. A secondary analysis of this literature shows that displacement may in
fact be more common than is widely claimed, particularly in the case of studies with offenders. Furthermore, the findings of the Kirkholt
Burglary Prevention Project, which purport to demonstrate a diffusion of benefits, are shown to be based on questionable evidence.
This dissertation therefore questions the accepted view of crime displacement, and the soundness of the evidence on which it is based; and
recommends that a large scale research project should be conducted with offenders, to discover a more accurate picture of crime displacement.
Was The UK Prison System Designed by Men, For Men?
Women’s prisons are surrounded in controversy and commentaries on the many issues relating to them such as drug abuse, mental illness and s
elf-inflicted death have become increasingly visible to the public in the twenty-first century. A number of scholars and campaigners
blame these issues upon a gendered design; believing that the UK prison system was designed by men, for men. The aim of the dissertation
was to investigate the veracity of this notion using a secondary literary-based research approach.
Genocide Prevention in the Modern Setting: Theory versus Practice
Genocide is perhaps the most extreme and destructive crime against humanity, however, the international response to incidents of this nature has
frequently lacked political will or commitment, either financially or through military interventions. A commonality in the lack of genocide
intervention by individual states is the absence of gainful resources such as oil, gold and diamonds in the country of conflict, or through the
description of such events as ‘civil wars’. A further problem encountered with the intervention of genocide is its legal classification, the limited
meaning of which has consequently resulted in governments failing to respond whilst attempting to determine the correct ‘terminology’, with the recent
conflicts in Darfur being a key example of this problem (Quayle, 2005). This thesis, therefore, attempts to determine whether genocide can be actively
prevented through a discussion of the potential causal factors of genocide, and a critical evaluation of whether existing responses to genocide are both
appropriate and effective.
‘The Ultimate Betrayal' Female Child Sex Offenders: An Exploration of Theories, Media Representations and the Role of the Internet in Relation
to Female Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse
Following the recent case of Vanessa George, the nursery worker who sexually abused children in her care, this dissertation has chosen to look at
this group of offenders in more detail. The sole method of data collection chosen for this study was library-based research. Using a range of
textbooks, journals, newspaper articles and websites the researcher was able to gather information on this topic.
The study discusses a number of theoretical explanations put forward in attempt to explain the actions female perpetrators of child sexual abuse. It e
xplores a number of high profile cases of female sex offenders these being; Myra Hindley, Rosemary West and Vanessa George. The ways in which these
women were represented in the media is examined looking at the imagery and language used. Finally the role of the Internet in sex offending is examined
with a more specific section on what it is about the Internet that may be driving women to commit sexual abuse against children. Here the importance
of male-coercion is highlighted.
To What Extent has Recreational Drug Use Become Normalised Amongst the Student Population at University?
This dissertation measures the extent to which recreational drug use has become normalised amongst the student population at university. It draws
on five key dimensions to measure normalisation through the use of online self-completion questionnaires; access and availability, trying rates, rates
of recent and regular use and the degree of social and cultural accommodation of such use. This dissertation assessed the extent of normalisation in
comparison to previous research carried out amongst young people in this subject area.
Care or Custody: Where Should Mentally Disordered Offenders be Placed?
The Prison Service’s emphasis on punishment, control and security has created many problems for the
efficient and effective delivery of care to mentally disordered prisoners. Mentally disordered offenders do not have
the crucial coping mechanisms or ability to deal with the ‘prison culture’ (Stephen and Knight, 2009). Conflicting
opinions with regards to the treatment of mentally disordered offenders between the prison system and the NHS means care
available to prisoners is limited. The focus remains on punishment for the offence rather than treatment of mental
disorders (Criminal Justice Act: Chap 44, 2003). Therapeutic communities offer a potential solution to the question of
where mentally disordered offenders should be placed. The research found that all three (Community, Institution and Prison)
are useful with regards to the placement of mentally disordered offenders. It seems that each provides care for the offender and
protects the public from future harm to differing degrees. It identifies the appropriateness of each placement, however also
identifies that placement should be dependant on the aims (punishment or rehabilitation), the offence and the mental health issues.
The Reintegration Of Elderly Prisoners: An Exploration Of Services Provided In England And Wales
The elderly population in England and Wales has received relatively very little attention in the criminal justice system across
a number of levels. This is despite a rapidly increasing elderly prison population which is contributing to an already overcrowded
prison system. This poses a number of challenges for the Prison Service, since older people in prison experience a host of unique
problems which differ to those of younger prisoners. One significant aspect that has been overlooked by academics, politicians and
practitioners is the issue of re-integration. A literature review reveals that older inmates disproportionately struggle with
resettlement as a result of distinct psychological adjustments they have made in prison, a reduced support network in the community
and an increased likelihood of health and mobility concerns. These problems are exacerbated by a system oriented on a stereotypical
understanding of the young male criminal. In England and Wales, this has restricted the usefulness of prison programmes and activities
for older prisoners who are less likely to re-offend and who are less likely to be a threat to society upon release. With the
prioritisation of reducing re-offending and protecting the public, the National Offender Management Strategy (NOMS) fundamentally
conflicts with the characteristics of elderly prisoners and fails to consider their re-integrative needs. The findings of the research
indicate that there is an absence of a cohesive strategy in England and Wales to manage these needs. However, there have recently been
some attempts to address the gaps in current policy through the publication of toolkits for good practice by the Department of
Health. There are also several examples of targeted measures for older prisoners across England and Wales, which have been driven by
local prisons and voluntary agencies. These initiatives represent a positive shift in attention to the re-integrative needs of older
prisoners, but the lack of national co-ordination and funding serves to impair these efforts. In order to develop a successful
overarching plan, policy makers can look beyond England and Wales to learn how to best manage the needs of elderly
prisoners. Age-segregation facilities in the United States have proven to provide a more focused approach to the elderly and
the debates that have emerged from them might provide the basis of an effective national strategy. Further initiatives such as early
release in the United States and specialised accommodation for the released in Canada offer further examples of how an integrated
model of support might work in England and Wales.
The Heart of the Criminal Justice System: A Critical Analysis Of the Position of the Victim
The aim of this dissertation, which is based on secondary research involving analysing a range of books, journal articles,
Government publications, newspaper articles and videos, is to critically examine the position of the victim in the criminal
justice system. The paper looks at the role of political interests in establishing victim-focus policies and the direction
towards their placement at the heart of the justice system. This includes the managerialistic values, modernization of the
Government and covering-up of punitive measures taken against the offender that all point to the political rhetoric around the
centeredness of the victim. Furthermore, the view of traditional justice is accounted for in order to get a grasp of the many
underlying factors that can be attributed to the so called rebirth and the consequent concentration on the victim.
The paper firstly discusses characteristics of victims, the impact of crime on victims and also their needs for a better
understanding of who they are and what can be done to help them. Particular attention is drawn to stereotypes associated with
victims and constructions of the ideal victim. Secondly, the adversarial nature of English justice and implications for victims
are discussed, as well as some tensions between the interests of the offender and the victim, and the opposed nature of the
two. Procedural and service rights especially play an important role in defining whether victims are given appropriate
attention. Many new initiatives favour the victim and pledge for its better treatment, but it will be shown that there are
conflicts as to what can be done in reality and what is proposed. However, it cannot be disputed that support for victims has
progressed significantly within the last decade. In the dissertation, it will be argued that the position of the victim, influenced
by these many factors, cannot be at the heart of the system, but has advanced in terms of their treatment.
Reinvesting in Communities: Community Justice as a Viable Solution to Mass Incarceration.
Over the years, there has been a paradigm shift from penal welfarism to ‘punitive populism’ in the UK, and a consequence of this has
been an increased use of imprisonment. It has been recognised that high imprisonment rates disproportionately affect the most
deprived communities, and this study outlines the detrimental impact that this has upon their economic viability, reputation, cohesion
and strength of networks. This study demonstrates that community justice is a potential solution to these problems; as such an approach
aims to improve communities by getting people to become more engaged with the criminal justice system (CJS), reintegrating
ex-prisoners, and by focussing upon areas such as housing, employment, education and health, and not simply individual offenders. The
ways that justice reinvestment initiatives have been used in the US are also outlined in this study, to demonstrate that no new
monies are required to fund community justice. Although there are a number of obstacles that will have to be overcome, including
support for ‘tough on crime’ policies, a ‘decline in community’ and fear of crime, this study proposes that if the public are made
aware of the wider benefits that such an approach could bring, then community justice provides an opportunity for real changes to be
made to the CJS and communities throughout the UK.
A Communities Perceptions and Attitudes Towards Neighbourhood Policing
This dissertation evaluates the impact of Neighbourhood Policing in a local community, focusing in particular on the
perceptions of key stakeholders and members of the community. Neighbourhood policing is the most recent model of
community policing in the UK, whilst community policing has been a popular model in the USA it has not been as
influential in the UK. However, during the early 2000s there was growing anxiety and an increase in the public’s
fear of crime, despite crime rates decreasing since the mid 1990s. This led to the development of the National
Reassurance Policing Programme. This programme developed a set of practical policing strategies that were targeted, primarily, at
reducing fear of crime amongst the public. The Neighbourhood Policing model developed directly out of the reassurance programme, and
is attempting, with the extension of the policing family, to provide each community with a local policing team that is both
visible and accessible.
Theory of Desistance
The aim of this research was to explore factors which lead to desistance amongst offenders. There were
three central areas looked at during the research. Firstly the correlation between age and offending,
secondly the how and why the process of desistance commences, and finally, why people continue to desist from offending.
The findings from this research were obtained from semi-structured
interviews with two desisters, one male and one female, similar age group, similar economic back ground and upbringing. Themes
were kept broad so that the responses were those of the interviewees and not directed by the research.
It was discovered that the experiences and factors leading to desistance amongst the research sample group were not dissimilar
to the theoretical frameworks of desistance. Given the level of funding put into simply punishing and releasing offenders back
into society, this research looks at real interventions which may lead to people “choosing” not to offend in the future.
Capitalism and Crime:
The Criminogenic Potential of the Free Market
This dissertation discusses the neo-liberal capitalist hegemony that exists in the Anglo-American nations and its implications for
national crime rates. It elaborates upon the tendency of neo-liberal nations to have dramatically higher crime rates than nations
governed by other ideologies. It discusses the problems associated with the widespread adoption of values like competitive
individualism, the rise of consumer culture and other factors like rising social inequality. These problems are backed up by case
studies of the USA, Japan and the Scandinavian Nations. It concludes that although neo-liberalism may not lead directly to higher
crime rates some of its effects are hardly conducive to a peaceful society.
Recognising Children and Young People Living in the Context of Domestic Violence
Domestic violence has been a relatively ‘hidden’ problem in society for centuries. In the past forty years developing research has
shown that children and young people who have witnessed domestic violence in their life time are likely to face long term implications
in respect of their emotional, psychological and behavioural development. For children and young people who witness domestic violence, this
experience is core to their lives, yet service support and delivery is still fragmented across the UK. The government need to re-address the
evidence from research and practice that shows us the extent of the problem and its effects upon children and young people, so they recognise
the need to appropriately fund and deliver supportive services for our young and vulnerable population.
Why is the International Justice System Ineffective at Protecting the Rights of Child Soldiers?
A number of international legal instruments, adopted, signed and ratified, to protect the rights of children, represent
a framework for how “justice” is determined legally (Mehigan, Walters and Westmarland, 2010). Employing content and discourse
analysis, and adopting a cultural relative stance, this article examines the centrality of the concept of power to understanding how
children are affected differentially by “justice”. Critiques of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations, undated) and
the Convention of the Rights of the Child (United Nations General Assembly, 1989), will be followed by a critical assessment of The Impact
of Armed Conflict on Children (Machel, 1996). The success of the international justice system in respect of childrens’ rights will be assessed
by focusing on two pertinent international solutions, namely the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programme and the International
Contemporary Maritime Piracy and Securi-Car Thefts: Can Lessons From the Past Have
Practical Implications on Reducing Future Incidence?
Through analysing lessons from the past regarding how several notable methods of crime in transit have transpired, flourished, diminished
and ceased, this dissertation seeks to discover if it is theoretically useful to create a common typology of successful crime prevention
procedures that can help prevent future attacks on valuables in transit.
The two main forms of transport becoming increasingly affected by the theft of cash and valuables in transit (CVIT) today are
cash-in-transit vans and international cargo ships, both inconceivably important in modern society and equally as relied
upon (BSIA, 2007; IMB, 2009). With the oceans home to ‘roughly 50,000 large ships’ carrying ‘80 percent of the world's traded cargo’
(Luft and Korin, 2004) and cash-in-transit vans carrying ‘£1.4 billion in cash daily’ (Home Office, 2007) around the UK, it is evident
that the problem CVIT potentially creates is astoundingly costly.
This dissertation aims to provide a resourceful tool by providing a typology and framework of promising practice to be applied to
specific areas of such an escalating global crime problem. A typology of promising techniques may advance knowledge and better
focus efforts in reducing the incidence of future thefts of valuables in transit, particularly with regards to maritime piracy and
securi-car thefts. History has consistently uncovered a preferred method of transport for thieves to target due to a form of
displacement occurring once weak targets are universally hardened, and knowing this may help society gear up for the next CVIT
problem before it arrives.
The Treatment of Mentally Disordered Offenders Within the Criminal Justice System
This dissertation aims to provide a critical examination of the various types of treatment interventions that affect the mentally
disordered offender. This area has seen vast change within recent years, with a number of factors contributing to the desperately
high proportion of mentally disordered offenders currently held within prisons in England and Wales. Arguably, focal to debates
surrounding the appropriateness of treatment for this group is the care and control dichotomy that has historically undermined
successful policy implementation for this group. This dissertation will address the various approaches that have been taken, exploring
whether it is possible to balance punishment for their offending behaviour with a need to treat their mental disorder, whilst taking
into account concerns with public safety that have increasingly penetrated debates surrounding the treatment of this group. Further, it
will propose a number of plausible future policy directions, illustrative of the need to uptake an approach dependent upon both mental
health provision and the Criminal Justice System.
Passion, Poison and Pistols; Media Representations and Media Constructions of Female 'Crimes of Passion' in England, 1820-1856
This dissertation shows that the media constructions of mid-19th century murderesses were not as straightforward as some other
historians have suggested. Using contemporary newspaper reports it will demonstrate that although many women received a uniformly
negative response to their actions, there was a complex criteria underpinning her portrayal. The media was influenced by a woman's
physical appearance, her personal life and emotional state, her religious devotion and her relationship with the victim, who was also
intensely scrutinised. Class conflict is also evident in this research; a working-class murderess was considered a danger to middle-class
notions of sexual honour and acceptable female behaviour. The idea of transgression allowed media reporters to make sense of such deviance. This
dissertation shows how using this methodology can give historians a valuable insight into the everyday lives working-class women and also an
opportunity to see patriarchy in action.
Compensation for Miscarriage of Justice
Denial of liberty is the most serious state sanction available in the United Kingdom. That people who have suffered an unjustified
loss of their liberty, together with all the consequential damage to themselves and their families, should be swiftly and justly
compensated is a principle few would disagree with. Of course, consideration of the detail is far more complicated, in terms of
why compensation should be paid, who should qualify and how much they should receive. This dissertation attempts to address these
issues and compare our current compensation scheme against international obligations and wider principles of justice.
No Further Action? A critical examination of the past and present police response to domestic violence
This dissertation offers a critical examination of the police response to domestic violence. The
findings of the research suggest that until the late 1980s the criminal justice system paid little attention to the victims
of domestic violence. A number of early studies documented the dismissive and derogatory way in which police officers tended to
handle ‘domestic disputes’ (for example, Dobash and Dobash, 1980; Hanmer and Saunders, 1984; Edwards, 1989; Bourlet, 1990). Domestic
violence was frequently seen by the police as a private matter, not 'real' violence, and unworthy ‘rubbish’ work
(Dobash and Dobash, 1992). This dissertation found that from 1986, onwards, the need for changes in police practice to domestic
violence was accepted by the Home Office, and domestic violence is now viewed as a crime both by practitioners in the criminal
justice system and by government itself. In the past ten years in particular, there have been significant improvements in police
policy and practice in response to domestic violence. By contrast, research is showing that enthusiasm for change presents the danger
of inappropriate arrests of those they set out to protect.
To What Extent do Criminal Biographies Add To Our Understanding of Criminality?
What is the academic value of criminal “insider” accounts? How might the personal accounts of convicted criminals add to our
understanding of criminal action? Might these accounts contribute to the study of criminology as a vibrant subject? Do such texts
illuminate the subject in a way that makes the social reality of criminals easier to comprehend, or are they of no more value than
works of fiction? These telling questions focus our attention upon an area of research which has currently received little
attention, meaning that there is a gap in the existing literature on the use and usefulness of written criminal accounts.
This makes this investigation particularly worthwhile, interesting and justified. This dissertating examines the differences,
strengths and weaknesses between a number of criminal biographies and autobiographies and the usefulness of such criminal life
stories in criminology.
What are the differences between how the social classes are portrayed in the News Media in regards to the drinking culture in Britain today?
There exists a discrepancy between how the news media portrays the drinking habits of the lower classes namely the ‘underclass’ and the working
class, compared with the middle class and celebrity culture in Britain today. Using critical discourse analysis this research explores why the
social classes are portrayed differently, who decides on this portrayal and why, as well as the social ramifications of such portrayals. This
exploration will extend to the wider social issues which affect the discrepancy in media portrayal. Firstly by looking specifically at the
nineteenth century, the social history of Britain’s drinking culture and the class struggle that exists, as this was a period which highlights
middle class dominance and has transcended the generations. Secondly, the acceptability of alcohol in British society and how this acceptability
differs, dependent on the social class you belong to, according to media construction. Thirdly, an examination of class in modern Britain and how
immunity is granted to the middle classes from condemnation from the media and the processes of the Law due to their perceived respectability and
use of private and public space. Finally, media influence and how the news media is a business which seeks to increase its profits by being used
as a tool in the transmission of ruling class ideology.
This research focuses on the news portrayal from three newspapers; The Times, Daily Express and The Sun, as a means of examining the differences in
portrayals dependent on the target audience of the newspaper. Societies reliance on the media to provide them with an insight into the world puts the
media in a very powerful position. What this research aims to highlight is, that in order for there to be a cultural shift in Britain’s relationship
with alcohol, the middle class should no longer be able to hide behind the protection of the media, with all social groups needing to be open to scrutiny.
The Bare Life of the ‘Problem Drug User’:
An Analysis of Neo-Liberal State Responses to ‘Problem Drug Users’
This paper examines the intelligibility of the neo-liberal state’s war on the ‘problem drug user’ within Foucauldian analyses of
liberal bio-political regimes of governance. In the modern era, with the epistemic shift to bio-power, the order of power has become
imbued with a rationality which derives its principles from those of warfare. The ‘problem drug user’ has become the subject of quasi-military
style interventions in the name of the life and health of the population. These interventions are exercised at the level of the ‘problem drug
user’s’ life as their form of existence has been ‘disallowed to the point of death’ within an advanced-liberal Britain. The use of such authoritarian
strategies is not antithetical to the liberal project of ‘government through freedom’ but is integral to it. Within neo-liberal ‘governmentality’,
only certain populations who have reached the ‘maturity of their rational faculties’ are considered amenable to governance within late modern ‘circuits
of inclusion’. The pathological ‘problem drug user’ has been led to their improvement by the neo-liberal state in the guise of a benevolent
despot. The modern state utilises its sovereign power of deduction to render the ‘problem drug user’s’ bare life amenable to bio-political
investment by the ‘experts of life’ in a ‘localisation without order’ outside of the political community termed by Agamben (1995) as camp. It
is argued that the Cognitive Behavioural Therapy setting within the late modern prison is the materialisation of this state of exception. Within
this permanent spatial arrangement the ‘experts of life’ assume the role of the sovereign, confronting the problem drug user (who assumes the
status of homo sacer) in a fundamental bio-political relationship where through a series of practical exercises they are incited to enfold authority
and ‘subjectify’ themselves. The telos embodied within this strategy of control is the freedom of the subject and their re-insertion into ‘circuits
of inclusion’ where rational and prudent subjects of self interest are ‘governed through freedom’.
Can Discipline Cope?
Intra-EU Migration and its Implications
Upon Foucauldian Discipline
This dissertation is a discussion on whether the current ease of internal migration within an ever more integrated European Union (EU) could
affect the concept of Foucauldian discipline, which I argue is embedded deeply within state legitimisation processes and national solidarity
movements. I argue that discipline, which requires some form of enclosure, could falter at the national level due to the ease at which non-integrated
‘alien others’ can enter the nation-state’s disciplinary domain; thus creating problems of state legitimacy, leading to reactionary responses from the
state and populace. However, if a strong invasive EU discipline were applied across all member states (MS) then it would be possible for the EU to fill
the disciplinary void, perhaps also leading to a state formation process through the use of laws, rights and standardised policing. However, I also
discuss possible disciplinary ‘crashes’ that could occur if an EU discipline failed or was too weak, which can be applied to all forms of discipline.
How has the establishment of the Internet
changed the ways in which offenders
launder their dirty money?
The Internet has become an integral part of UK society, many people use or access the Internet on a daily basis and utilise its resources to
help them lead easier lives. The Internet is prevalent within the UK; its abilities are consumed by our education system, our retailing industry,
and our employment sector, just to name a few. However, along with all the beneficial aspects that the Internet has created, there have also been
some characteristics that have been damaging to society. Offenders have also been able to access and use the Internet to their advantage, to make
their lives easier and to aid them in committing criminal offences.
In respect to money laundering, the Internet has created huge opportunities and changes within the processes involved. ‘Hackers and fraudsters were
first to exploit the criminal opportunities presented by cyberspace and they have since been joined by cyber launderers eager to wash the proceeds
of both virtual and real-world crimes.’ (Kochan. 2005: 268). This dissertation has taken an in-depth look into the process of money laundering,
along with how the establishment of the Internet has changed the methods utilized by offenders.
The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders
The main purpose of this dissertation was to explore, explain and evaluate the responses of professional organisations when they have to
coordinate a multi-agency response to deal with juvenile sexual offenders. Past literature has often ignored the issue of juvenile sexual
offenders and therefore, this dissertation has provided a critical literature review which has attempted to rectify this problem. The
findings of this dissertation showed that whilst there has been an attempt to coordinate a multi-agency response, the government has
jeopardised this response by the introduction of difficult and confusing laws, policies and organisational arrangements. This has affected
juvenile sexual offenders to their detriment, as practitioners have to negotiate the ambiguity of these diverse policies and legislations,
and this has put at danger the arrangements already in place for juvenile sexual offenders. However, there has been at attempt to resolve this
predicament and practitioners, in Greater Manchester, have established the AIM (Assessment Intervention Moving-on) project. The AIM project has
successfully strengthened this multi-agency response and improved policies and practices, for the organisations that have to deal with juvenile
sexual offenders. But, several problems have emerged within this multi-agency response and the government still have a lot of work to do, in
order to improve the services for juvenile sexual offenders. As a result, items for consideration and future recommendations for policy-makers
have been based on these problems.
Community Oriented Policing
Community policing is the connection between police and citizenry, who work together on safety involving the public in the community.
The design of community policing is to entail a more open relationship between the police and the public which gives the police a more
proactive role in the community (Thomas & Burns 2005). Community policing involves new and old tactics. The tactics include foot and bike
patrol, beat meetings, mini-stations and many other citizen and police partnerships (Thomas & Burns 2005). Community oriented policing
involves organizational changes as well as external changes.
Conceptual and Methodological Challenges in Examining the Relationship Between Mental Illness and Violent Behaviour and Crime
There is a longstanding view within the general population and the criminal justice system that the mentally ill are more prone
than the mentally healthy to violence and. This view, however, is not fully supported by empirical research, in particular due to
conceptual and methodological challenges that arise when the relationship between mental illness and crime is examined. This paper reviews
such challenges, reviewing areas such as the ‘criminalisation’ of the mentally ill and the ‘psychiatrisation’ of criminals, as well as the
complex problem of common factors, and the mediating impact of substance abuse. Specific methodological challenges are also reviewed, including
problems with conducting longitudinal and randomised research in this area, and difficulties encountered in the sampling methods used.
Bridging The Gap Between Prison And The Community:
An exploration of resettlement and desistance among female offenders in England and Canada
Despite recent developments in law and policy in both England and Wales and Canada which have aimed to decrease the number of offenders
being sent to prison, prison populations continue to increase. In England the prison population has nearly doubled since 1991
(Morgan and Liebling, 2007) and despite a slight decrease in the overall prison population in Canada in recent years both female offenders
and offenders who have breached the conditions of their release are being sent to prison more frequently (Motiuk, Cousineau and Gileno,
2005; Dell, Sinclair and Boe, 2001: iv). Despite efforts to create a more ‘seamless’ service and provide a continuity of care for those
leaving prison, recidivism rates remain high.
To What Extent Are Different Types of Care Environment Criminogenic?
The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate young people’s experiences within different care environments (Residential, Secure, Foster and Kinship)
and the extent to which they are criminogenic. The investigation is informed by three key criminological theories: the Risk and Protective Factors Paradigm, Control Theory, Anomie and Strain Theory. Previous relevant research on different care environments, offending behaviour and associated theoretical explanations are reviewed and informed the development of the specific focus of the primary research. Reviewing the existing literature illustrated the need for the current study. Much of the existing literature shows a high prevalence of offending amongst young people in care and those who have left care, without differentiating between types of placement or offering any theoretical explanation of the over-representation of those who have been in care and offending behaviour.
The primary research consists of 12 structured interviews, with three participants from each of the four main types of care environment. The interviews focus on experiences within the care environments, using risk ratings of 12 aspects of life that can be linked to offending (developed from the ASSET assessment form used with young offenders ). Interviews explore issues that can be related to Control Theory, Anomie and Strain Theory and The Risk and Protective Factors Paradigm. Exploring criminological theory as it relates to the development of criminal behaviour is used to assess the extent to which different types of care environment are criminogenic. The findings from the primary research are compared to the findings within the existing literature.
The research shows that there are strong criminogenic influences within all types of care environment. Interviews with those from residential care show the most criminogenic environments. Interviews with young people from kinship care illustrated stronger criminogenic influences than secure and foster placements. Interviews with those from secure care showed fewer criminogenic influences that those from residential and kinship care. Finally foster placements were the least criminogenic. Although the research supports theoretical explanations of the care environments as ‘criminogenic’; other explanations of offending behaviour are revealed. ‘Prior experiences’ and ‘individual agency’ were apparent in many of the interviews, illustrating that offending behaviour is not exclusively caused by the care environment.
Nevertheless it is concluded that local authorities are failing their duties as corporate parents to provide young people with the care and support they require to resist offending.
This thesis advocates a stronger focus on reducing offending by children in care as a more prominent part of the life chances agenda in the future.
A Comparative Study of Cultural Aspects of Organised Crime in Two Countries – China and Italy – and Their Futures Within a Transnational Criminal Network by Rebecca Ince, Student at Aston University, UK.
The BBC World Service recently broadcast a series of investigative reports detailing various transnational criminal trades, including
the trafficking of women and children into the illegal sex trade, drug smuggling, the trade in human body parts, money laundering and
much more (BBC World Service, 2002). The United Nations Convention Against Organised Crime in 2000 highlighted the role of trafficking
groups and criminal organisations in these illicit trades, bringing to attention the fact that serious crime is not simply a series of
random individual acts, but is often a carefully organised trade, with the obvious feature of it being both violent and highly illegal.
‘Every Work of Art is an Uncommited Crime’: The Application of Sociological Theories of Deviance to Modern Art. by Carol Norman, Student at Goldsmiths College, UK.
Modern art begins with Manet (1832-1883) and the Impressionists and continues until the present day (Julius 2002). Like crime,
it often breaks societal rules, however, modern art is not typically against the law and for this reason it is ‘uncommitted crime’
(Adorno 1951). Deviance is the violation of societal rules, which may be consensual or imposed by a powerful group (Box 1981). Modern
art breaks societal rules and so is deviant; for example Serrano’s (1987) ‘Piss Christ’ (Picture 1) mocks the Catholic Church and traps
spectators into blasphemy. However, despite evidence of deviance in modern art, sociological theories of deviance concentrate on
crime, delinquency and mental illness.
A Study to Investigate Social Control Theories and the Role of CCTV as a Social Control Agent by Nicholas Reeve, Student at Nottingham Trent University, UK.
The Primary aim of this dissertation is investigate social control theories, and how they compare to the actual role of CCTV as a
social control agent.
Criminal Victimisation of the Elderly: Have rates of crime against the elderly changed relative to overall crime rates? by Vicky Heap, Student at Loughorough University, UK.
Despite the increasing profile and reliance upon victimisation surveys to map crime trends, some of society’s demographic
receive little attention. The elderly are one such group. They have received little attention due to the traditional notion
that they suffer low levels of victimisation. This study challenges these long-held beliefs and focuses upon the criminal
victimisation of the elderly, in order to assess if crime rates against them have changed relative to the overall crime rate. A
secondary analysis was conducted on the 1988, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000 and 2001 British Crime Surveys in order to chart both
the proportion and rate of criminal victimisation experienced by the elderly.
Are Family Pets a Factor in Women Staying in Abusive Relationships? by Hannah Cooksey, Student at the University of Chester, UK.
Whether or not family pets are a factor in women staying in abusive relationships is an understudied
and undervalued research topic in today’s society. The current study therefore highlights the issue
through conducting empirical research, whereby questionnaires have been sent out to Domestic Violence
refuges in the Staffordshire and West Midlands areas and completed by refuge staff regarding knowledge
of the problem. Previous literature on this topic has been assessed and criticised as well as
surrounding themes of the human-animal bond and how these factors would correlate to the current study.
This combination of empirical and theoretical study has helped to gauge the extent of animal abuse within
violent households. Results supported the notion that pets are a factor in women staying in abusive
relationships and that pets are frequently abused by violent partners. The study highlights the need for
a wider acknowledgment in addressing the problems and ensuring that more women become aware of the
support available, resulting in less women feeling there is no alternative but to stay with their
partner and less pets becoming abused in the future.
A Critical Discourse Analysis of Corporate Environmental Harm by Stuart Saint, Student at the University of Central Lancashire, UK.
The aim of this research was to explore the discourses, and discursive practices, concerning corporate
environmental harms. Continuing in the tradition of Schwendinger and Schwendinger (1975), I chose to
utilise harmful acts that were not necessarily illegal by legal definition but often had a much greater
impact upon the ecosystem (such as the pumping of radioactive waste by BNFL into the Irish Sea). As
Kennedy (2005) demonstrates, corporate environmental harm can often refer to acts that are legal as a
result of significant influence from corporate representatives. This dissertation firstly examines how
modernity and capitalism have encouraged environmental destruction and then assesses how the media, lobby
groups and governments perpetuate the discourses of corporate environmental harm. There is then a short
case study of the illegal dumping of electronic goods and spent radioactive waste. The dissertation
concludes by stating that there are a number of different discourses of corporate environmental harm, but
that these work together in different ways to reproduce existing power relations.
Child Trafficking in the UK: An Examination of Contemporary Approaches by Lorinda Norris, Student at Nottingham Trent University, UK.
Child Trafficking, whilst not a new phenomenon, remains a heinous activity as children are the most
vulnerable members of society, yet it is exactly this vulnerability that makes trafficking possible
in the first instance. Official statistics by the Home Office and the United Nations highlight a continuing
increase in this ‘industry’ and whilst most of society holds the notion that children are not a commodity to
be bought and sold, there remain a small but determined proportion of the population who are willing to exploit children for profit.
Child trafficking is a covert, multi-faceted and organised criminal activity making it extremely difficult to detect and prevent,
particularly in light of its cross-border nature, whilst child victims are themselves often difficult to recognise. It is issues
such as these which make child trafficking such a complex activity to approach hence research in this field is often perceived as
under-reporting the true incidence of the behaviour.
There are legislative provisions and European-based conventions in place to protect trafficked children but many organisations have
been slow to react thus responses are perhaps too little, too late. This dissertation, therefore, considers measures that have been
put in place by the UK Government to protect trafficked children in conjunction with the various Non Governmental Organisations
who are also involved in the issue, in an attempt to assess the scale of child trafficking in the UK.
Discrimination, relating to length of service, within the contemporary police service by Rosie Lambert, Student at Nottingham Trent University, UK.
The research aimed to investigate the presence, extent and effects of discrimination related to
length of service within the police service. This is an under-researched area so literature relating
to other areas of discrimination within the police service was considered. This aided comprehension of
any common effects of discrimination, which may be similar to those experienced by officers if discrimination
related to length of service is present.
Primary research was conducted by issuing a questionnaire which gathered the opinions of officers in relation
to several areas. The areas investigated include; recruitment, treatment by, and relationships with, other
officers. Snowball sampling enabled a positive response rate of almost forty officers of varying ranks.
However, this method did not allow the researcher to have control over the sample. All participants described
their ethnicity as White British, so other ethnicities were unrepresented.
Secondary findings suggested that length of service related discrimination is a problem in many organisations.
Research showed that discrimination can have many negative effects on officers, such as reduced life and job
satisfaction, stress and social withdrawal. This highlighted the need to investigate whether this discrimination
is present in the contemporary police service, as officers may be significantly affected.
Primary research findings revealed several areas, such a promotion and recruitment, in which officers’ believed
discrimination to exist. Whilst the research focus was on length of service, it was important to consider these areas.
Findings showed that significant numbers of officers believed there was inequality in treatment of officers with
different lengths of service, and that longer serving officers receive more positive treatment from senior officers.
Statistics suggested that length of service discrimination is a real problem within the police service, greatly
affecting happiness and experiences, requiring further researched in order to be addressed.
Some longer serving officers were found to act negatively toward newer officers both verbally and physically.
Whilst theories provided possible explanations for this, further research would be necessary to gain full comprehension.
A minority of officers had conflicting beliefs and suggested that no discrimination exists within the police service.
An Investigation into the Fear of Crime: Is there a Link between the Fear of Crime and the Likelihood of Victimisation? by Tom Wynne, Student at Nottingham Trent University, UK.
The fear of crime has received an unprecedented amount of attention in the form of research in recent times;
however there is a great deal which remains unknown and unanswered. The purpose of this dissertation is to attempt to
extensively analyse existing research into the fear of crime, and to uncover new ideas and trends concerning fear and
victimisation. In particular, the relationship between fear of crime and likelihood of victimisation is investigated.
Many interesting findings emerged from this research, although some results are contradictory. The elderly, for example,
were discovered to be generally more fearful than younger adults due to their feelings of isolation and vulnerability. However,
research occasionally suggested otherwise; that the elderly were less fearful since they knew their likelihood of victimisation was
lower than younger people. Ultimately, the research consulted provides little evidence to suggest that there is a link between fear
of crime and the likelihood of victimisation. Fear can be induced by a variety of factors and circumstances and may not necessarily
be purely a consequence of one socio-demographic variable. In other words, it is wrong to assume that all women are fearful of crime due to their gender.
The impact of fear of crime on lifestyle can be both positive and negative: an individual’s likelihood of becoming a victim will be
affected by a variety of factors, some of which are almost impossible to quantify. This is a challenge to be addressed in future research.
The phenomena of Black youth crime and how Black youths are portrayed in the media in the United Kingdom: Whether the portrayal can be considered exaggerated, or if the moral panic is in someway justified? by Ndubuisi Nkem Okoronkwo, Student at Nottingham Trent University, UK.
Black youth crime and the portrayal of black youths in the media have generated considerable publicity in recent years. The
recent fatal knife and gun crimes in London involving black youths were highlighted by the media which in turn produced a moral
panic surrounding the issue.
The intent of this study is to present an argument for or against the perception that black youths are portrayed negatively in the
media and the moral panic surrounding black youth crime is exaggerated. Literature and qualitative research by way of four unstructured
interviews regarding six sub factors which are, the media portrayal of black youths, negative role models amongst the black community,
the underachievement of black youths in school, single parent families, social class and black culture, were analysed and discussed
in order to reach a valid conclusion.
Conclusions are drawn that the media do in fact portray black youths in a negative way but on the other hand, with support from statistics
and relevant literature, black youth crime is a serious problem and therefore cannot be dismissed as a moral panic exacerbated by the media.
An Examination of the Links between Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Offending Behaviour in Young People by Diane Bishop, Student at Nottingham Trent University, UK.
This dissertation examines the links between autistic spectrum disorders and offending behaviour in young people. First
identified over sixty years ago, autistic spectrum disorders have remained relatively unknown until recently. Given the
hidden nature of these disorders, they can be difficult for criminal justice professionals to identify, and characteristics of the
conditions could be misconstrued as offending behaviour.
In order to examine the possible connections between autistic spectrum disorders and offending, as well as the criminal justice
system response to young offenders on the autistic spectrum, a review of the current literature was undertaken. To gain a greater
insight, interviews were conducted with professionals who work with children on the autistic spectrum. In addition, a Police Community
Support Officer was interviewed.
Results of primary and secondary research indicated that, without labelling all children on the autistic spectrum as criminal, there
are predisposing characteristics of the condition that could be linked to offending behaviour. Furthermore, the research highlighted
the lack of training criminal justice professionals receive on how to recognise and appropriately deal with children on the spectrum. The
dissertation concludes with recommendations for future research, and outlines the need for better intervention techniques within the criminal
What causes police officers to become cynical?
The main aims of this dissertation were to use empirical and secondary qualitative research techniques
to establish why police officers become cynical, and to investigate any dislocation between the themes
elicited from police literature on the causes of cynicism, and the feelings expressed by contemporary
police officers. The dissertation takes a post-modern position and rejects broad theories and typologies
derived from some previous behavioural studies of police officers.
The literature accessed highlighted the most prevalent causes of police cynicism to be shortfalls of
management, boredom, vocation disappointment, the excessiveness of paperwork, the influence of colleagues,
unity and solidarity, isolation from the public and a lack of relevant training. These themes were
investigated in the methodology, which involved a semi-structured interview with the Assistant Chief
Constable of ‘Westshire’ Police, a social survey of 16 police officers of which 13 were response
constables and a focus group of 5 respondents.
The research established some dislocation between the causes of police cynicism evident in police
literature, and the actual feelings and opinions expressed by the officers involved in the study.
Officers believed that boredom, a lack of respect from the public and training were not primary causes
of cynicism in contemporary police officers and police typologies were rejected by the respondents.
Though it was not established in literature, the ineffectiveness of the UK Criminal Justice System was prevalent throughout the responses as a cause of cynicism.
Some of the themes in police literature contributing to cynicism were corroborated in this dissertation;
the shortfalls of management, the influence of colleagues, various disappointments about the vocation,
and the excessiveness of paperwork proved to be consistent issues within literature and the field.
‘A Critical Evaluation of the Sex Offender Treatment Programmes used in Prisons’ by Louise Belcher, Student at Nottingham Trent University, UK.
The purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate the effectiveness of Sex Offender Treatment Programmes (SOTPs)
used in prisons. It aimed to achieve this by looking at the historical context, theoretical underpinnings, the
aims and (unintended) consequences and the effectiveness of the SOTPs at fulfilling their aims. Secondary research
was used in order to answer the research aims, allowing for a wide ranging analysis of the subject area. This research
has found that the SOTPs were introduced as a result of the media attention, moral entrepreneurs and public anxiety
surrounding sexual offenders. Due to this attention theories attempted to explain sexual offending. Research into
rehabilitative approaches suggested that a cognitive-behavioural approach such as the SOTP was the most successful
treatment measure for treating sex offenders. By looking into the programmes in more depth this research found that
the effectiveness of the programmes was not as straight forward as had been originally perceived. By analysing the
aims and (unintended) consequences of the SOTPs as well as the effectiveness of the programmes at fulfilling their
aims, this research has shown that within the programmes there is evidence of positive professional practice as well
as a reduction in reoffending of those who had completed the SOTP compared with offenders who had not. However, it
has also found that there were many weaknesses within the measures used to assess the programmes effectiveness.
Therefore, this dissertation has shown that there is a need for methods other that reconviction data to the measure
the programmes effectiveness. It has also shown that more research is needed into whether the SOTP is more successful
at treating certain types of sex offenders as well as research into whether targeting areas such as distorted thinking
and victim empathy is effective at reducing sexual reoffending or that any other approach would be just as effective.
‘Women In Prison: A Review of the Current Female Prison System: Future Directions and Alternatives’ by Amanda Noblet, Student at Nottingham Trent University, UK.
A review of relevant literature has indicated that women are sentenced inconsistently by the criminal justice system
showing differences between harsh, equal or lenient treatment. This dissertation highlights that sending women to
prison, who tend not commit serious crime and drawing a prison population who have the characteristics of economic and
social deprivation, is completely unnecessary. It also highlights the penal institutions to which women are sentenced, are
failing to provide for the specific needs of women or to equip them with ways to improve their future prospects. Whilst it
is recognised that the government is aware of such problems, through the publication of the Corston Report (2007) and their
subsequent response, radical shifts in sentencing policy and practices to restrict the numbers of women sent to prison are
desperately needed. Considering the secondary research findings, a number of recommendations for future policy and practice
have been made in four main areas; increasing the use of non-custodial penalties, a substantial reduction in custodial remand,
reform of custody and increased diversion from prosecution.
An Evaluation of Sex Offender Treatment for Offenders Sentenced to Custody by Lewis Evenden, Student at Nottingham Trent University, UK.
The intention of this dissertation was to examine the effectiveness of the prison based Sex Offender Treatment Programme (SOTP).
It considered the history and content of the programme before analysing existing evaluations of the treatment to draw recommendations
for future research and practice.
Secondary research was used throughout the paper allowing for the difficulties in accessing sex offenders and their environment to
be overcome, but also it allowed for time and cost to be kept to an absolute minimum. Home Office studies were the main focus of the
dissertation as they provided the most comprehensive results, although the analysis of these was also supplemented by psychology-based evaluations.
The research identified that evaluating the effectiveness of sex offender treatment programmes was not straight forward and that it was
mainly methodological issues, such as a low base rate when using reconviction data, which have prevented firm conclusions being drawn
about the efficacy of the programme. Despite these issues many of the evaluative studies carried out on the SOTP suggested that the
programme was insufficient in dealing with high risk offenders. Interestingly this dissertation also touches on the findings that,
community provisions in dealing with this category of offender also seem to be inadequate, but without an effective method of testing
the efficacy of these provisions, the findings of the studies should be treated with caution. The study also identified a number of
areas for further consideration, which are outside the remit of this project, and a number of recommendations to try to improve the
situation with regards to demonstrating the efficacy of the programme. These included longer follow up periods and the incorporation
of treatment within the follow up contact in order to improve the programmes ability to deal with high risk offenders.
‘www.how-to-be-a-better-burglar.com’: An exploratory study of online burglary guides. by Matthew Durrant, Student at Nottingham Trent University, UK.
The Internet was originally designed to provide a means of information sharing, universal networking and communication in
which it has excelled. However, the unforeseen costs of the globalization of a freely accessible environment that lacks any
kind of appropriate formal control has eventually succumb to those who wish to exploit its relative vulnerability and naivety
as a secure community. One example of this vulnerability is the ability people from all over the world are afforded to disclose
information which may prove to be harmful to others. Some well documented examples of this we have seen in recent times are
online terrorist representation and the disclosure of information such as that on bomb making, the use of the Internet by white
racialist groups, pages which are perceived to promote anorexia and websites which provide information on and encourage suicide.
The Chemical Generation: A Critical Analysis of Medical ‘Expert’ Discourse and the Construction of Mental Illness by Katie Ware, Student at the University of Central Lancashire, UK.
This dissertation is a critical analysis of medical ‘expert’ discourses about mental illness.
The author makes reference to key texts from the medical establishment as well as critical criminology
texts. She takes as her criminological starting point, critical criminologist Joe Sim’s argument that medication
is used in prisons as a form of control rather than a form of therapy (1990). At the root of this
practice is the underlying assumption of medical experts that deviancy can be detected like an illness
and treated as such, which would in turn regulate crime. Her interest in Sim is due to the argument that
the happenings within the Prison Medical System (PMS) are not that different from the happenings in the
outside world’s medical establishments. With reference to drugs being used as a form of control within
prisons, Ware explores whether these kinds of findings are pertinent in the surgeries of general
practitioners, and whether a similar theory of control applies to the use of medication in individuals,
especially children and teenagers, who are perceived to act outwith the social norm.
Private Security: In The Public Interest? by Ian Messenger, Student at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
British society has undergone extensive changes over the latter half of the 20th Century.
The decline in social capital and sense of community has brought great challenges to state
policing through an ever-expanding range of demands placed upon them by its citizens. This decline has
led to many informal social controls becoming ineffective and has led to citizens forsaking the concept of
‘community’ for individualism. This has led to a balkanisation in policing needs and has created an insatiable
need for security that the public police struggle to meet.
The question is how do we ease this pressure? The private security sector predates and now exists alongside
the public police and may provide one solution in tackling the increasing demands for policing. The validity of
the use of private sector personnel in policing will be studied, specifically in relation to the psychological
effects of crime, more commonly known as the ‘fear of crime’.
The negative impact of private sector involvement will also be examined with questions being asked as to whether
the commodification of security is ultimately harmful to what is left of the collective. The central focus of this
paper will conclude if private security serves the public interest by mitigating the effects of individualism or if
it merely encourages them, and in what way (if any) this is different from the public police.
An Examination of How Changes in Policing Practices Have Affected Criminal Justice Discrimination Against Minority Ethnic Communities. by Daniella Narduzzo, Student in the Division of Criminology, Public Health and Policy Studies at Nottingham Trent University, UK.
The increase in the number of people from different ethnic backgrounds and countries is one of the most
significant changes in Britain. In the twenty-first century minority ethnic groups are still considered
to be a problem in society, just like they have been throughout history. Subsequently, the relationship
between the British police and ethnic minority communities has not been a happy one. This dissertation
examines the extent to which changes in policing practices have affected criminal justice discrimination
amongst British minority ethnic (BME) communities. The question of whether the police operate in a
discriminatory way has recently been bought to attention since the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry (1999).
Using a library-based, documentary review, as a basis for critical research, this work attempts to
investigate and analyse the size and scope of the problem between the police and BME communities, the
changes that have occurred as a result and the difficulties faced by the police.
Juvenile Crime and Punishment in Bucharest, Romania: A Public Opinion Survey by Alina Haines, PhD Research Student at the University of Huddersfield, UK.
This paper discusses results from a survey of public attitudes towards juvenile crime and the treatment
of juvenile offenders in Romania. The study is based on research conducted as part of an MSc in Community
Safety at Leicester University. Studies examining public opinion and crime are new to Romania – indeed,
this survey represents the first attempt to explore such subjects. Results show that public opinion is
inconsistent, with ambivalent attitudes about juvenile crime and sentencing; people concurrently favour
retribution and tougher sentences for juvenile offenders, while supporting elements of restorative justice
and non custodial penalties. Explanations for such contradictory views include inaccurate knowledge about
juvenile crime, prejudices and distorted media reporting.
Talking about Terrorism: An Analysis of Official Canadian Insecurity Narratives in the Post-September 11 Context by Mike Larsen, Department of Criminology, Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Ottowa, Canada.
This study identifies the dominant characteristics of official Canadian state discourses on national security and
terrorism in the post-September 11 context, using a content analysis methodology; identifies key themes and / or
areas of incongruity in these discourses, and relates these findings to a broader discussion of contemporary
Canadian national security policy and practice. Major themes of interest and key terms are identified through
a review of the literature, and used as the basis for an analysis of twenty (20) samples of open-source official
(federal government) Canadian discourse from the post-September 11 context. It is argued that state discourses
about terrorism and security are a core component of national security campaigns, and that through the
construction of insecurity narratives (constellations of discourse about a particular security threat),
states effectively ‘do national security’. The study finds that the current Canadian insecurity narrative
is characterized by themes of exceptionality, urgency, necessity, secrecy, and crisis – and consistent
references to September 11 as a mobilizing event. The nature of this narrative is such that the current
national security campaign is indeterminate in length, ambiguous in purpose, and expansionary in trajectory.
The Huntley Case: How Far Does It Tell Us That We Need To Compromise Personal Liberties For Public Security? by Leanne Monchuk, School of Human and Health Sciences, University of Huddersfield, UK.
The aim of the following literature review is to attempt to discover whether public protection outweighs civil liberties
or vice versa. The murders of Jessica Chapman and Holly Wells in 2002 threw this topic into the spotlight. Ian Huntley,
in 2003, was convicted of their murders and this consequently launched the instigation of the Bichard Inquiry Report.
The report was commissioned as Huntley was known to Humberside Police and prior to the murders had allegations of a
sexual nature made against him. Key concepts presented in the review include Beck and ‘risk society’, Foucault’s
‘carceral society’ and the Utilitarianism and deontological concepts of liberty. Legislation such as the Human Rights
Act 1998, the Data Protection Act 1998 and the introduction of ViSOR are made reference to, in an attempt to discover
whether Huntley should have been closely monitored and not employed in a school. No definitive answers in this arena
can be provided and many cases have specific and individual circumstances surrounding them. What has emerged however,
from the extensive literature that has been collated, is that members of the public do fear the risks that are posed
in today’s society and are therefore in favour of the implementation of systems such as the Violent and Sex Offenders
Register (ViSOR) if it ensures the prevention of incidents such as the Soham murders from occurring again, and allowing
someone like Huntley to ‘slip through the net’.
Factors in a Successful Use of the Insanity Defense by Katie Conner, Department of Psychology, Northeastern University, USA.
Little research has been conducted into the factors that impact the successful use of a not guilty
by reason of insanity plea by a defendant in a murder case. This study addresses this issue by
examining a number of factors including defendant, victim, and crime scene characteristics.
Employing archival research, data were gathered from all murder and non-negligent homicide cases
for the years 2000 and 2001 in which a plea of not guilty by reason of insanity was later entered for the
defendant. Results indicate that specific factors of a defendant’s background, such as criminal and psychiatric
history, are associated with impacting a successful not guilty by reason of insanity plea, as are characteristics
that indicate planning and victimizing a child.
Using Panel Data to Characterise Prisoner and Demographic Age Characteristics by Wee Lee Loh, Department of Statistics, Harvard University, USA.
Using panel data to study the macro-linkage between demographic and prisoner age characteristics
this empirical paper investigates the relationship between age and the probability of
being sentenced via an alternative framework. Fixed Effects GLS was used on both an
unbalanced panel and a balanced subpanel data set. Both level and log transformed models
were tested. Indeed, there is evidence that younger people are more than proportionately
committed to the prisons. This result is only significant when the unbalanced panel is used.
This exercise also illustrates the possible dangers of creating a balanced subpanel
from an unbalanced data set.
The Drowned and The Saved: Identities of Resistance and Docility Amongst the Boys in a Young Offenders’ Institution by Don Crewe, School of Criminology Education, Sociology, and Social Work, Keele University, UK.
This paper explores the relationship between identity and agency in a Young Offenders’ Institution,
through an empirical study at HMYOI Werrington in Staffordshire. It contends that ‘docility’ can
be an intentional strategy; a product of the possession of agency rather than of its absence as
Foucault would argue. Resistance and docility are seen as negotiated strategies in the processes of
surviving imprisonment, necessitating sophisticated strategies of discretion in the application of
the regime by uniformed staff. Resistant behaviour is conventionally seen as an indication of failure
to internalise the regime, and docility of success. I suggest that failure to internalise the regime
constitutes genuine survival, and docility the converse. Using Levi’s metaphor, the drowned are the docile,
the resistant the saved.
Problems Faced by the Criminal Justice System in Addressing Fraud Committed by Multinational Corporations by Mohd Kassim Bin Noor Mohamed, Nottingham Trent University, UK.
This dissertation examines the problems faced by the criminal justice system when addressing fraud committed
by multinational corporations (MNCs). As the recent scandals at Enron, Worldcom et al demonstrate, when MNCs
commit fraud their offences eclipse every other form of crime in terms of the money drained from and harm done
to national economies. Using a library-based, documentary review, as a basis for critical research, this work
attempts to investigate and analyse the size and scope of the fraud problem, the difficulties faced by the
enforcement agencies and the legislative challenges that hamper prosecution. There is an effort to present
and discuss the socio-legal and criminological debates around the deviance of elites and the cost to social
justice if these issues are not faced.
Fear of Crime in a Small Community by Don Crewe, School of Criminology Education, Sociology, and Social Work, Keele University, UK.
The paper engages with the “commonsense” notion, and that of Ezioni (1993), that fear of
crime might be lower in a small relatively close-knit community. To that end it sets
out to investigate people’s concerns about crime and to relate them to notions of
community in The Cathedral Close in Lichfield (UK), where the researcher, serendipitously,
was resident at the time of writing. The paper places fear of crime within a
criminological paradigm and engages with the necessary limitations of that paradigm.
It suggests that new extra-paradigmatic perspectives may be more illuminating of the
concerns expressed by people about crime, and in this vein examines the perceived
relationship between the concerns of the residents of The Close about crime and their
perception of their place within that small community.
The Commodification of Violence on the Internet: An analysis of 166 websites containing commodified violence by Samuel Slater, Student at Nottingham Trent University, UK.
The commodification of violence has occurred for centuries, even millenia. The simple fact is violence is a highly popular,
entertaining and profitable commodity.
Noramlly, however, various formal and informal controls regulate the amount and extremity of such violence
that is consumed. With the advent of the internet, however, this has all changed. 'Bumfights', released in 2002 and only retailed online,
is a poular 'underground' video that features graphic and dehumanising abuse of the homeless. This dissertation investigates
the changed nature of the commodifcation of violence, with a content analysis of 166 websites containing such violence, to explore themes
and trends in the online violence market.
Therapeutic Jurisdprudence and the Drug Courts by Glenn Took, School of Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Victoria University.
This thesis explores the contradictory nature of current penal practices and contends that
through the implementation of drug courts based on the teachings of therapeutic
jurisprudence, there has emerged within the justice system a hybrid program that
sufficiently appeals to a widespread audience in the punishment milieu. In its hybridity
the drug court is able to breach the apparent inertia of modern penal practices and offer
a program that is therapeutically oriented but is still able to resonate with the
sensibilities of the ‘tough on crime’ bandwagon. .
The Theory, Development and Application of Electronic Monitoring in Britain by Jenny Ardley, Lecturer in Criminolgy, University of Derby; Associate - Midlands Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice, UK.
The aim of this dissertation is to provide a critical analysis of the issues
surrounding the implementation of Electronic monitoring (EM). Curfew orders (CO)
with EM have been available in Britain since July 1995, the Home Detention Curfew (HDC)
since January 1999. It is vitally important that society does not accept without question
new methods of punishment implemented by the government, especially when the use of
sophisticated and modern technology is the main component.
Preparation for the Release of Life Sentenced Prisoners at HM Prison Sudbury by Jenny Ardley, Lecturer in Criminolgy, University of Derby; Associate - Midlands Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice, UK.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate how HM Prison Sudbury prepares their life sentence
prisoners for release with a particular consideration of risk assessment.
Belief or Prejudice: Christianity and Homosexuality by Stephen Hammett, Birkbeck College, University of London.
This paper is an examination into whether claims by Christians about their beliefs regarding homosexuals
& homosexuality are consistent religious beliefs or prejudice disguised as religious belief.
The Mafia, The Triads and the IRA: A Study of Criminal and Political Secret Societies by Daniel Lydon, Department of Social Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, UK.
The Sicilian Mafia, The Chinese Triads and The IRA are three secret societies that have evolved from rural peasant protection groups
developed to fight back against oppressive feudal regimes. Through kinship (familial and fictive), violence and symbiotic relationships
with officials, each group (often many groups operating under the umbrella label) grew in size and adopted hierarchical structures with clear
igureheads: The Mafia’s ‘Capo de Tutti Capi’ (‘Boss Of Bosses’,’ Godfather’, ‘Don’), The Triads ‘Dragon Head’ (‘489’), and the IRA’s ‘Brigade Commander’. All aided governments throughout history in various conflicts and at other times revolted against them. The Sicilian Mafia and the Chinese Triads have both been partly responsible for overthrowing unpopular regimes in their native countries and have been forced to emigrate in vast numbers due to economic and political oppression. Both groups evolved into profit-orientated organisations. The IRA has fought many years for the unification of Ireland and a withdrawal of the British occupation of Northern Ireland. With the current IRA ceasefire, many members are not engaged in violent conduct. If the evolutionary line of other violent secret societies is followed, then members of the IRA may start moving from political agendas into profit orientated endeavours, possibly organised crime, as the socio-economic and political climates balance. Splinter groups, such as the ‘Real IRA’ and the ‘Irish National Liberation Army’, have already been formed and evidence suggests that at least one is
working with the (Columbian) Medellin Cartel aiding drugs and arms smuggling. Punishment beatings are still occurring in local
communities as inactive IRA members attempt to maintain the regulation of violence and control within their communities.
The idea of criminal groups splintering from inactive IRA members is a plausible one on the basis of historical analysis and contemporary indication.
Whilst it is not claimed that any such group would equate with the Mafia or the Triads, the pattern of organised crime group evolutions suggests such
a direction to be a genuine possibility.
IJC - OPEN PEER REVIEW
To read more about the open peer review process Click here
To download Download
All articles published on
the IJC are now free access.
MASTERS & UNDERGRADUATE DISSERTATIONSThe IJC publishes Masters and first class undergraduate dissertations.
It should be noted that these papers are NOT peer reviewed. Papers on the following subjects will be considered: crime or deviance from disciplines of criminology, psychology, social policy, criminal justice, policing, and sociology. History or law papers will be considered.
To submit an article, please email the IJC Chief Editor: Mike Sutton
Please ensure your submission is accompanied by your supervisor's contact details so the IJC can verify your work.
Adobe Acrobat Reader To open any of the articles you will need to have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed on your computer. If you do not have this programme, you can download it free of charge by visiting the Adobe website
We welcome your comments regarding these articles, and our site in general. If you have any comments or questions please do not hesitate to email the General Editor